Rubella

German measlesdisease of the same namematernal rubellameaslesrubella (German measles virus)
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.wikipedia
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Rubella virus

rubellaRubivirusMatonaviridae
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
Rubella virus (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the main cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles.
Both rubella, also known as "German measles", and roseola are different diseases caused by unrelated viruses.

Congenital rubella syndrome

Congenital rubellaRubellarubella syndrome, congenital
Infection during early pregnancy may result in a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) or miscarriage.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.

Hearing loss

deafdeafnesshearing impairment
Symptoms of CRS include problems with the eyes such as cataracts, ears such as deafness, heart, and brain.
Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child.

Rubella vaccine

rubellarubella vaccinationMeruvax II
Rubella is preventable with the rubella vaccine with a single dose being more than 95% effective.
Rubella vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent rubella.

MMR vaccine

MMRmeasles-mumps-rubella vaccineMMR vaccination
Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine.
The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

Cataract

cataractscataract surgerycongenital cataracts
Symptoms of CRS include problems with the eyes such as cataracts, ears such as deafness, heart, and brain. Congenital heart defects and cataracts can be corrected by direct surgery.

Vertically transmitted infection

vertical transmissionmother-to-child transmissionvertically
For these reasons, rubella is included on the TORCH complex of perinatal infections.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseasecongenital heart defectsheart defect
Congenital heart defects and cataracts can be corrected by direct surgery.
Risk factors include cetain infections during pregnancy such as rubella, use of certain medications or drugs such as alcohol or tobacco, parents being closely related, or poor nutritional status or obesity in the mother.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinologyvaccinated
Rubella infections are prevented by active immunisation programs using live attenuated virus vaccines.
Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid.

Measles vaccine

measles vaccinationmeaslesAttenuvax
Often it is given in combination with the measles vaccine and mumps vaccine, known as the MMR vaccine.
Maurice Hilleman at Merck & Co., a pioneer in the development of vaccinations, developed the MMR vaccine in 1971, which treats measles, mumps and rubella in a single shot followed by a booster.

Norman Gregg

Norman McAlister GreggNorman McAllister GreggSir Norman Gregg
Subsequently, ophthalmologist Norman McAllister Gregg found 78 cases of congenital cataracts in infants and 68 of them were born to mothers who had caught rubella in early pregnancy.
Sir Norman McAlister Gregg, (7 March 1892 – 27 July 1966) was an Australian ophthalmologist, who discovered that rubella suffered by a pregnant woman could cause birth defects in her child (congenital rubella syndrome).

HLA-A1

A1A*01hla-a1 antigen
Increased susceptibility to infection might be inherited as there is some indication that HLA-A1 or factors surrounding A1 on extended haplotypes are involved in virus infection or non-resolution of the disease.
A1 with B8 showed an increase risk of measles infection, however, the significance was not consistent.

Eradication of infectious diseases

eradicationeradicatedisease eradication programme
Five more infectious diseases have been identified as potentially eradicable with current technology by the Carter Center International Task Force for Disease Eradication—measles, mumps, rubella, lymphatic filariasis and cysticercosis.

Rhinitis

coryzaseasonal allergic rhinitisrhinitis, allergic, perennial
In the case of infectious rhinitis, vaccination against influenza viruses, adenoviruses, measles, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, diphtheria, Bacillus anthracis, and Bordetella pertussis may help prevent it.

Immunization

immunisationimmunizationsimmunize
Rubella infections are prevented by active immunisation programs using live attenuated virus vaccines.
Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles, mumps, rubella, MMR, yellow fever, varicella, rotavirus, and influenza (LAIV).

Alfred Fabian Hess

Dr. Alfred Fabian Hess
In 1914, Alfred Fabian Hess theorised that rubella was caused by a virus, based on work with monkeys.
Hess suggested that rubella was caused by a virus in 1914.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
Universal immunisation producing a high level of herd immunity is important in the control of epidemics of rubella.

Thomas Huckle Weller

Thomas H. WellerThomas WellerWeller, Thomas Huckle
The virus was isolated in tissue culture in 1962 by two separate groups led by physicians Paul Douglas Parkman and Thomas Huckle Weller.
In 1954 he was awarded the George Ledlie prize in recognition of his research on rubella, polio and cytomegalovirus(CMV) viruses.

Scarlet fever

scarlatinascarletinascarlatiniform rash
In 1814, George de Maton first suggested that it be considered a disease distinct from both measles and scarlet fever.
Nil Filatov (in 1895) and Clement Dukes (in 1894) described an exanthematous disease which they thought was a form of rubella, but in 1900, Dukes described it as a separate illness which came to be known as Dukes' disease, Filatov's disease, or fourth disease.

Roseola

exanthema subitumRoseola infantumsixth disease
In this JAMA article Zahorsky reports on 29 more children with Roseola and notes that the only condition that should seriously be considered in the differential diagnosis is German Measles (rubella) but notes that the fever of rubella only lasts a few hours whereas the prodromal fever of Roseola lasts three to five days and disappears with the formation of a morbilliform rash.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.

Itch

itchingpruritusitchiness
The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles.

Lymphadenopathy

lymphadenitisenlarged lymph nodesswollen lymph nodes
Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks.

Arthritis

arthriticjoint inflammationarthritic changes
In adults joint pain is common.