Rudolf I of Germany

Seal of Rudolf I inscribed: RUDOLFUS DEI GRACIA ROMANORUM REX SEMPER AUGUSTUS ("Rudolf by the grace of God King of the Romans, ever majestic")
Rudolf's cenotaph in Speyer Cathedral

The first King of Germany from the House of Habsburg.

- Rudolf I of Germany

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Duke of Swabia

The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages.

Map of the duchy of Swabia in the tenth and eleventh centuries (Swabia is marked in yellow; the kingdom of Upper Burgundy is green).
The Dukes of Swabia stem duchy family diagram

With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated, although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late-13th century.

Kingdom of Germany

The mostly Germanic-speaking East Frankish kingdom, which was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, especially after the kingship passed from Frankish kings to the Saxon Ottonian dynasty in 919.

Map of the Kingdom of the Germans (regnum Teutonicorum) within the Holy Roman Empire, circa 1000
Personifications of Sclavinia ("land of the Slavs"), Germania, Gallia, and Roma (Italy), bringing offerings to Otto III; from the Gospels of Otto III

Reigns were either dated from the day a ruler was elected king (Philip of Swabia, Rudolf of Habsburg) or crowned king (Otto IV, Henry VII, Louis IV, Charles IV).

Duchy of Styria

Duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.

Map of Austria-Hungary in 1910, showing Styria in red
Grazer Schlossberg
Map of Austria-Hungary in 1910, showing Styria in red
The Duchy of Styria (dark red, dark orange) in modern Austria and Slovenia

This met with strong opposition by the newly-elected King Rudolph I of Germany, who claimed the duchies as escheated fiefs.

Kyburg family

Noble family of grafen (counts) in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th centuries ruled the County of Kyburg, corresponding to much of what is now Northeastern Switzerland.

Arms of the Grafen von Kyburg in the Zürich armorial, c. 1340
Comital arms from the Wappenbuch of Ulrich Rösch, abbot of St. Gall (r. 1463–1491).
The Bailiwick of Kyburg within the Zürichgau in the 18th century

With the extinction of the Kyburg family's male line in 1264, Rudolph of Habsburg laid claim to the Kyburg lands and annexed them to the Habsburg holdings, establishing the line of "Neu-Kyburg", which was in turn extinct in 1417.

Battle on the Marchfeld

Decisive event for the history of Central Europe for the following centuries.

Battle on the Marchfeld by Anton Petter
Ottokar's lands in 1272
Movements of the opposing forces prior to the battle (in German)
The ground was ideal for a cavalry battle
Battle of Rudolph of Habsburg against Ottokar of Bohemia. A drawing by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 1835
Monument erected in 1978 on the battlefield between the villages Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen
Kings Ladislaus and Rudolph of Habsburg meet over the dead body of King Ottokar. A romantic painting by Mór Than, 1872. Such patriotic-tinged works were common in the Czech, German or Hungarian settings during the 19th century

The opponents were a Bohemian (Czech) army led by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia and the German army under the German king Rudolph I of Habsburg in alliance with King Ladislaus IV of Hungary.

Přemyslid dynasty

Bohemian royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.

Last three Přemyslid kings according to illumination from the Chronicon Aulae regiae: Přemysl Ottokar II (one crown – Bohemia), Wenceslaus II (two crowns – Bohemia and Poland) and Wenceslaus III (three crowns – Hungary, Bohemia and Poland)
Bohemian king Wenceslaus II as the King of Poland, a romantic drawing by Jan Matejko (1892)
Maximum extent of the kingdom under Ottokar II, c. 1276
Premyslid Dynasty Family Tree

The Habsburg representative, Rudolf, was elected as King of the Romans.

House of Habsburg

Austrian and Spanish dynasty which was once one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium.

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as, among the houses of, and
Map showing the constituent lands of the Archduchy of Austria: the Duchy of Austria, comprising Upper Austria centered on Linz, and Lower Austria centered on Vienna; Inner Austria, centered on Graz, comprising the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and the lands of the Austrian Littoral; and Further Austria, comprising mostly the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, and usually the County of Tyrol. The area between Further Austria and the Duchy of Austria was the Archbishopric of Salzburg.
Habsburg lands (in green), following the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547; excludes Holy Roman Empire, and the Spanish colonial empire
The Iberian Union in 1598, under Philip II, King of Spain and Portugal
The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg European lands, ca 1700
Profile portrait of Leopold I highlighting his "Habsburg jaw", Deutsches Historisches Museum
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
"PLUS OULTRE", motto of Charles V in French, on a ceiling of the Palace of Charles V in Granada
Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.
Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864
Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke

In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh-generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg was elected King of the Romans.

Canton of Uri

One of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation.

Lake Lucerne with Canton Uri at the southernmost point in the lake
Suvorov Crossing the St. Gotthard Pass, an Alexander Kotzebue painting
Reuss valley
Historical banner, traditionally dated to the Battle of Sempach (1386), kept in the town-hall of Altdorf.
Glarus Alps

As early as 1243 Uri had a district seal, and in 1274, Rudolph of Habsburg, who was now the Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed its privileges.

Duchy of Swabia

One of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom.

The Duchy of Swabia within the German Kingdom around the start of the 11th century
Stem duchies of the German kingdom 919-1125, by William R. Shepherd: Swabia in light orange
The Duchy of Swabia within the German Kingdom around the start of the 11th century
The Duchy of Swabia within the German Kingdom around the start of the 11th century

Count Rudolf of Habsburg, elected King of the Romans in 1273, attempted to revive the Swabian ducal title, bestowing it on his youngest son, the later Duke Rudolf II of Austria, who passed it to his son John Parricida.


Old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne, consisting of two valleys or Talschaften, now two separate Swiss cantons (or two half-cantons), Obwalden and Nidwalden.

Unterwalden depicted as one of the thirteen cantons in 1572. Its name is Latinized as Sylvania, and its date of foundation is given as 1315, the date of the Pact of Brunnen, taken as the traditional founding date of the Swiss Confederacy until the 19th century. The old flag of Unterwalden is also shown, identical to the later Flag of Solothurn.
Standesscheibe of Unterwalden (16th century), showing the red-and-white design for Obwalden and the double-key design for Nidwalden.
1642 map of Underwalden (Matthäus Merian)

In 1291, Rudolf I of Germany purchased the estates at Stans, Alpnach and Giswil.