Rules of chess

chessrulesstandard chesschess ruleslaws of chessrules of the gamechess rulemodern rulesmovesbasic rules
The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of chess.wikipedia
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FIDE

World Chess FederationFédération Internationale des ÉchecsAgon
Today, the standard rules are set by FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), the international governing body for chess.
It defines the rules of chess, both for playing individual games (i.e. the board and moves) and for the conduct of international competitions.

Chess

chess playerchess gamewestern chess
The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of chess.
If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost (provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate).

Chess960

Fischer Random Chess960 World Chess Championchess 960
There are variations of the rules for fast chess, correspondence chess, online chess, and Chess960.
After setup, the game is played the same as standard chess in all respects, with the exception of castling from the different possible starting positions for king and rooks.

Draw (chess)

drawdrawsdrew
A game can also end in a draw in several ways.
Draws are codified by various rules of chess including stalemate (when the player to move is not in check but has no legal move), threefold repetition (when the same position occurs three times with the same player to move), and the fifty-move rule (when the last fifty successive moves made by both players contain no or pawn move).

Chess piece

piecepieceschess pieces
Chess is a two-player board game utilizing a chessboard and sixteen pieces of six types for each player.
The rules of chess prescribe the types of move a player can make with each type of chess piece.

En passant

A piece is captured (or taken) when an attacking enemy piece replaces it on its square (en passant is the only exception). Threefold repetition: The same board position has occurred three times with the same player to move and all pieces having the same rights to move, including the right to castle or capture en passant.
It is a special pawn that can only occur immediately after a pawn makes a double-step move from its starting square, and it could have been captured by an enemy pawn had it advanced only one square.

Stalemate

stalematingimpasseMilitary stalemate
The game is automatically a draw if the player to move is not in check but has no legal move. This situation is called a stalemate. An example of such a position is shown in the adjacent diagram.
The rules of chess provide that when stalemate occurs, the game ends as a draw.

Draw by agreement

agreed to a drawdrawagree to a draw
Both players agree to a draw after one of the players makes such an offer.
The relevant portion of the FIDE laws of chess is article 9.1.

Perpetual check

perpetually checks
At one time, if a player was able to check the opposing king continually (perpetual check) and the player indicated their intention to do so, the game was drawn.
A draw by perpetual check is no longer one of the rules of chess; however, such a situation will eventually result in a draw by either threefold repetition or the fifty-move rule.

Promotion (chess)

promotionpromoteunderpromotion
In the case of a pawn promotion, if the player releases the pawn on the eighth rank, the player must promote the pawn.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.

Check (chess)

checkcheckschecking
The king can be put in check but cannot be captured (see below).
Under the standard rules of chess, a player may not make any move that places or leaves their king in check.

Castling

castlecastledcastles
Threefold repetition: The same board position has occurred three times with the same player to move and all pieces having the same rights to move, including the right to castle or capture en passant.
Castling is one of the rules of chess and is technically a king move.

Staunton chess set

StauntonStaunton designStaunton pattern
Pieces of the Staunton chess set design are the standard and are usually made of wood or plastic.
According to the rules of chess, this style is to be used for competitions.

Time control

byo-yomibyoyomibyōyomi
Besides the basic moves of the pieces, rules also govern the equipment used, time control, conduct and ethics of players, accommodations for physically challenged players, and recording of moves using chess notation.
Rules of chess

Touch-move rule

j'adoubefingerfehler
Another group of new laws included (1) the touch-move rule and the accompanying "j'adoube/adjust" rule; (2) that White moves first (in 1889 ); (3) the orientation of the board; (4) the procedure if an illegal move was made; (5) the procedure if the king had been left in check for some moves; and (6) issues regarding the behavior of players and spectators.
This is a rule of chess that is enforced in all games played in formal competitions.

Chessboard

boardchess boardboards
Chess is a two-player board game utilizing a chessboard and sixteen pieces of six types for each player.
Rules of chess

Checkmate

matecheckmatingmates
The goal of the game is to checkmate (threaten with inescapable capture) the opponent's king.
Nevertheless, it keeps these combinations from being ruled a draw because of "insufficient mating material" or "impossibility of checkmate" under the FIDE rules of chess.

Jacob Sarratt

Jacob Henry SarrattSarratt
In the 19th century this restriction was lifted, which allowed for a player to have more than one queen, e.g. the 1828 rules by Jacob Sarratt.
He introduced into England the chess rule that a stalemate is a draw, which was commonly used on the continent of Europe.

Bare king

lone kingbare the opponent's kingbaring the king
The second completed illegal move by the same player results in the loss of the game, unless the position is such that it is impossible for the opponent to win by any series of legal moves (e.g. if the opponent has a bare king) in which case the game is drawn.
Under modern rules, a player with a bare king does not automatically lose and may continue playing.

Monika Soćko

SoćkoMonika BobrowskaBobrowska
(See Monika Soćko rules appeal in 2008 and Women's World Chess Championship 2008 for a famous instance of this rule.)
In the 2008 Women's World Championship she was involved in a game which resulted in a dispute about the interpretation of the FIDE rules of chess.

Cheating in chess

cheatingcheatcomputer cheating
Cheating in chess
Cheating in chess refers to a deliberate violation of the rules of chess or other unethical behaviour that is intended to give an unfair advantage to a player or team.

Fifty-move rule

50-move rule50-move draw50-move draw rule
Fifty-move rule: There has been no or pawn move in the last fifty moves by each player.
Rules of chess

Threefold repetition

draw by repetitionmove repetitionrepeat moves
Threefold repetition: The same board position has occurred three times with the same player to move and all pieces having the same rights to move, including the right to castle or capture en passant.
Rules of chess

Descriptive notation

descriptive chess notationdescriptiveEnglish notation
There are other systems such as ICCF numeric notation for international correspondence chess and the obsolete descriptive chess notation.
Special terms: Special indicators that are appended to the move include e.p. (en passant), ch or + (check), a question mark for a bad move, an exclamation mark for a good move, mate or ++ (checkmate), resigns, and draw.

Libro de la invencion liberal y arte del juego del axedrez

Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez
Ruy López de Segura gave rules of chess in his 1561 book Libro de la invencion liberal y arte del juego del axedrez.
López's book contains general chess advice, rules of the game, and a discussion of the origin of the game.