Running

runnerrunnersrunTrack runningfootracefoot racerunning eventrunsfoot racesfootraces
This article is mostly about human running; for other uses, see Runner (disambiguation), Gait, Horse gait, Dog gait, or Running (disambiguation).wikipedia
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Walking

walkambulantwalkers
This is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept mostly straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion.
Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits.

Terrestrial locomotion

locomotionterrestrialTerrestrial locomotion in animals
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
There are also many gaits, ways of moving the legs to locomote, such as walking, running, or jumping.

Jogging

joggerjoggersjog
The term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting.
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace.

Bipedalism

bipedalbipedbipeds
It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs.
Types of bipedal movement include walking, running, or hopping.

Running in Ancient Greece

footracesrunnerRunning
Running in Ancient Greece can be traced back to these games of 776 BCE.
In Ancient Greece, the history of running can be traced back to 776 BC.

Racing

raceracessprint finish
Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 BCE and 1171 BCE, while the first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE.
Running a distance is the most basic form of racing, but races may be conducted in vehicles, such as boats, cars, cycles and aircraft; or with animals such as horses or dogs.

Aerobic exercise

aerobiccardiocardiovascular exercise
Although an optimal amount of vigorous aerobic exercise such as running might bring benefits related to lower cardiovascular disease and life extension, an excessive dose (e.g., marathons) might have an opposite effect associated with cardiotoxicity.
When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking.

Achilles tendon

AchillesAchilles' tendoncalcaneal tendon
Early humans most likely developed into endurance runners from the practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee, succumbing to "chase myopathy" (Sears 2001), and that human features such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, big knee joints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of activity (Bramble & Lieberman 2004, et al.).
It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running.

Iliotibial band syndrome

injured her left kneeIT Band Syndrome
Change in running volume may lead to development of patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, plica syndrome, and medial tibial stress syndrome.
Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury to the knee, generally associated with running, cycling, hiking or weight-lifting (especially squats).

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
Change in running pace may cause Achilles Tendinitis, gastrocnemius injuries, and plantar fasciitis.
It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running.

Cadence (gait)

cadenceleg turnoverrunning cadence
During running, the speed at which the runner moves may be calculated by multiplying the cadence (steps per second) by the stride length.
Cadence in sports involving running is the total number of full cycles taken within a given period of time, often expressed in steps or cycles per minute.

Sport of athletics

Athleticsathleteathletic
Today, competitive running events make up the core of the sport of athletics.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.

Mile run

MileOne mile1 Mile
The standard middle distances are the 800 metres, 1500 metres and mile run, although the 3000 metres may also be classified as a middle distance event.
The mile run (1,760 yards or exactly 1,609.344 metres) is a middle-distance foot race.

Long-distance running

long-distance runnerlong distance runnerlong-distance
The events are categorized as sprints, middle and long-distance, and hurdling.
Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least 3 kilometres (1.8 miles).

Relay race

relayrelaysrelay team
Track running events are individual or relay events with athletes racing over specified distances on an oval running track.
Relay races are common in running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating (usually with a baton in the fist).

Track and field

tracktrack & fieldathlete
Road running takes place on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running).
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.

Limb (anatomy)

limblimbsextremities
Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: stance and swing.
Many animals use limbs for locomotion, such as walking, running, or climbing.

Racewalking

race walkerracewalkerrace walking
It is a popular participatory sport and is one of the events which, along with track and field, road running, and racewalking, makes up the umbrella sport of athletics.
Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times.

Fell running

fell racefell runnerMountain running
Among these are the cross country-related sports of fell running (a tradition associated with Northern Europe) and trail running (mainly ultramarathon distances), the running/climbing combination of skyrunning (organised by the International Skyrunning Federation with races across North America, Europe and East Asia) and the mainly trail- and road-centred mountain running (governed by the World Mountain Running Association and based mainly in Europe).
Fell running, also sometimes known as hill running, is the sport of running and racing, off-road, over upland country where the gradient climbed is a significant component of the difficulty.

Trail running

trail runnertrail runnerstrail
Among these are the cross country-related sports of fell running (a tradition associated with Northern Europe) and trail running (mainly ultramarathon distances), the running/climbing combination of skyrunning (organised by the International Skyrunning Federation with races across North America, Europe and East Asia) and the mainly trail- and road-centred mountain running (governed by the World Mountain Running Association and based mainly in Europe).
Trail running is a sport-activity which combines running, and, where there are steep gradients, hiking, that is run "on any unpaved surface".

Chafing (skin)

chafing
Another common, running-related injury is chafing, caused by repetitive rubbing of one piece of skin against another, or against an article of clothing.
Chafing is quite prevalent among long distance athletes such as cyclists or marathon runners due to the extensive time periods during which the skin is in irritating conditions.

Individual sport

individual sportsindividualindividual events
Track running events are individual or relay events with athletes racing over specified distances on an oval running track.

Stadion (running race)

stadionstadion racestade
The first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event – the stadion race, which was a race from one end of the stadium to the other.
Stadion or stade was an ancient running event, part of the Ancient Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games.

Fissure of the nipple

jogger's nipplefissurenipple
Chafe is also likely to occur on the nipple.
The issue is commonly seen in athletes, such as runners or surfers who do not wear rash guards.

Mountain running

mountain runnermountainLong distance mountain running
Among these are the cross country-related sports of fell running (a tradition associated with Northern Europe) and trail running (mainly ultramarathon distances), the running/climbing combination of skyrunning (organised by the International Skyrunning Federation with races across North America, Europe and East Asia) and the mainly trail- and road-centred mountain running (governed by the World Mountain Running Association and based mainly in Europe).
Mountain running is a combination of running, jogging, and walking, depending on how steep the trail is.