Runyon v. McCrary

ruled similarly
Runyon v. McCrary, 427 U.S. 160 (1976), was a case heard before the United States Supreme Court, which held that federal law prohibited private schools from discriminating on the basis of race.wikipedia
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Michael McCrary

Mike McCrary
Michael McCrary and Colin Gonzales were denied admission to Bobbe's School; Gonzales was also denied admission to Fairfax-Brewster School.
The case went to the United States Supreme Court Runyon v. McCrary in 1976.

Segregation academy

segregation academieswave of private schoolsacademies
Bobbe's was founded in 1958 as a segregation academy with five white students.
They were founded between 1954, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, and 1976, when the court ruled similarly about private schools.

Byron White

Justice WhiteWhiteByron R. White
Dissenting Justice Byron White argued that the legislative history of (popularly known as the "Ku Klux Klan Act") indicated that the Act was not designed to prohibit private racial discrimination, but only state-sponsored racial discrimination (as had been held in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883). The NFL named a public service award the Byron "Whizzer" White NFL Man of the Year Award in honor of Justice White, who had played professional football.
White dissented in Runyon v. McCrary (1976), which held that federal law prohibited private schools from discriminating on the basis of race.

Fairfax-Brewster School

Fairfax-Brewster
Russell and Katheryne Runyon d.b.a Bobbe's School and Fairfax-Brewster were schools in Northern Virginia.
The school was a petitioner in Runyon v. McCrary (1976), the Supreme Court case that made discrimination in private schools illegal.

Byron "Whizzer" White NFL Man of the Year Award

Whizzer" White NFL Man of the Year AwardWhizzer" White NFL Man of the YearByron "Whizzer" White Humanitarian Award
The NFL named a public service award the Byron "Whizzer" White NFL Man of the Year Award in honor of Justice White, who had played professional football.
The 2001 recipient, Michael McCrary, was the child in the Supreme Court case Runyon v. McCrary (1976) in which Justice White had participated nearly a quarter of a century before McCrary's award.

Potter Stewart

StewartJustice StewartJustice Potter Stewart
In a 7-2 decision Justice Stewart wrote the opinion for the Court.
In 1976, Stewart extended the Act again in Runyon v. McCrary—private schools open to all white students could no longer exclude black children, and all other offers to contract made to the general public were also made subject to the 1866 Act.

Freedom of association

associationright of associationfree association
The Court acknowledged that parents had the right to send their children to schools that "promote the belief [of] racial segregation," but that neither parents' nor students' freedom of association was violated by the application of 42 U.S.C. §1981.
This limit on freedom of association results from Section 1981 of Title 42 of the United States Code, as balanced against the First Amendment in the 1976 decision of Runyon v. McCrary.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Runyon v. McCrary, 427 U.S. 160 (1976), was a case heard before the United States Supreme Court, which held that federal law prohibited private schools from discriminating on the basis of race.

Third Enforcement Act

42 U.S.C. § 1983Civil Rights Act of 1871Section 1983
Dissenting Justice Byron White argued that the legislative history of (popularly known as the "Ku Klux Klan Act") indicated that the Act was not designed to prohibit private racial discrimination, but only state-sponsored racial discrimination (as had been held in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883).

Civil Rights Cases

choose with whom they engaged in businessThe ''Civil Rights Cases
Dissenting Justice Byron White argued that the legislative history of (popularly known as the "Ku Klux Klan Act") indicated that the Act was not designed to prohibit private racial discrimination, but only state-sponsored racial discrimination (as had been held in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883).

Class action

class action lawsuitclass-action lawsuitclass-action
A class action was filed against the schools by the parents of both students.

Title 42 of the United States Code

42 U.S.C.: Public Health and Social Welfare42 U.S.C.42
1. Were the admission policies of the private schools in violation of 42 U.S.C. § 1981?

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.

Jones v. MayerJones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. (1968)
While the schools were private, Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. held that the Ku Klux Klan Act applied to "purely private acts of racial discrimination."

Pierce v. Society of Sisters

6Pierce v. Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Maryright to send one's children to private school
The Court cited Pierce v. Society of Sisters and the right of the State "reasonably to regulate all schools" to further justify the decision.

Civil Rights Act of 1991

19911991 amendments1991 Civil Rights Act
In turn, Patterson was legislatively overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1991.

Bob Jones University

Bob Jones CollegeBob Jones AcademyBob Jones
In 1975, the University Board of Trustees authorized a change in policy to admit black students, a move that occurred shortly before the announcement of the Supreme Court decision in Runyon v. McCrary (427 U.S. 160 [1976]), which prohibited racial exclusion in private schools.

Homeschooling in the United States

homeschoolinghomeschooledhome-schooled
The final two sentences from the Supreme Court's opinion in Runyon v. McCrary, cited Pierce v. Society of Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, 268 U.S. 510 (1925) and the Court holds that a State may set educational standards but may not limit how parents choose to meet those educational standards.

Benton Academy

Benton (MS) Academy
Although in 2014 Benton Academy claims to have a nondiscriminatory policy, as is required by Runyon v. McCrary, as of 2016 they still did not enroll a single black student.

History of Bob Jones University

Over a year later, on May 29, 1975, the University Board of Trustees authorized a change in policy to admit "students of any race," a move that occurred shortly before the announcement of the Supreme Court decision in Runyon v. McCrary (427 U.S. 160 [1976]), which prohibited racial exclusion in private schools.