Rupert's Land

Rupert’s LandPrince Rupert's LandRuperts Landcountry within the limits of the Hudson's Bay CompanyNorthern and a big part of Western Canada
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.wikipedia
409 Related Articles

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec.
A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was then called Rupert's Land.

Prince Rupert of the Rhine

Prince RupertRupert of the RhineRupert
It was named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I and the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). In 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) was granted a charter by King Charles II, giving it a trading monopoly over the watershed of all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay, an area known as "Rupert's Land" (named in honour of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the king's cousin and the company's first governor). When granted the English Royal Charter in 1670 by King Charles II of England, the Hudson’s Bay Company, under the governorship of the king's cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, was granted "the sole Trade and Commerce of all those Seas, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, Creeks, and Sounds, in whatsoever Latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the commonly called Hudson's, together with all the Lands, Countries and Territories, upon the Coasts and Confines of the Seas,, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, Creeks and Sounds, aforesaid, which are not now actually possessed by any of our Subjects, or by the Subjects of any other Christian Prince or State", "and that the said Land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed as one of our Plantations or Colonies in America, called Rupert's Land".
As a colonial governor, Rupert shaped the political geography of modern Canada: Rupert's Land was named in his honour, and he was a founder of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec.
The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders previously existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.

Dakota Territory

DakotaTerritory of DakotaDakota in the American Civil War
It also included present-day United States territory, including parts of the states of Minnesota and North Dakota and very small parts of Montana and South Dakota.
The Dakota Territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana purchase in 1803, as well as the southernmost part of Rupert's Land, which was acquired in 1818 when the boundary was changed to the 49th parallel.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec. The area once known as Rupert's Land is now mainly a part of Canada, but a small portion is now in the United States. The Rupert's Land Act 1868 of the United Kingdom Parliament authorized the sale of Rupert's Land to Canada with the understanding that Rupert's Land' shall include the whole of the Lands and Territories held or claimed to be held by the" Hudson's Bay Company. The prevailing attitude of the time was that Rupert’s Land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company because "From the beginning to the end, the [Hudson’s Bay Company] had always claimed up to the parallel 49", and argued that the Royal Charter and various Acts of Parliament granted them "all the regions under British dominion watered by streams flowing into Hudson Bay". Rupert's Land had been essentially a private continental estate covering 3.9 million km 2 in the heart of North America that stretched from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and from the prairies to the Arctic Circle. Even Sir John A. Macdonald saw the land as being sold to Canada: "No explanation has been made of the arrangement by which the country (Rupert's Land) is handed over to the Queen, and that it is her Majesty who transfers the country to Canada with the same rights to settlers as existed before. The Royal Charter ignored the First Nations who were already living on the land and exercising sovereignty over it, and the Hudson's Bay Company had not acquired title to the land from the Aboriginal communities prior to their negotiations with Canada that began in 1856.
Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec.
Most of what is now Saskatchewan was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including the Saskatchewan River, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870. Following merger with the North West Company in 1821, the Hudson’s Bay Company's monopoly privileges and licence were extended to trade over the North-Western Territory. The Rupert's Land Act 1868 of the United Kingdom Parliament authorized the sale of Rupert's Land to Canada with the understanding that Rupert's Land' shall include the whole of the Lands and Territories held or claimed to be held by the" Hudson's Bay Company. The prevailing attitude of the time was that Rupert’s Land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company because "From the beginning to the end, the [Hudson’s Bay Company] had always claimed up to the parallel 49", and argued that the Royal Charter and various Acts of Parliament granted them "all the regions under British dominion watered by streams flowing into Hudson Bay". Rupert's Land had been essentially a private continental estate covering 3.9 million km 2 in the heart of North America that stretched from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and from the prairies to the Arctic Circle. Even Sir John A. Macdonald saw the land as being sold to Canada: "No explanation has been made of the arrangement by which the country (Rupert's Land) is handed over to the Queen, and that it is her Majesty who transfers the country to Canada with the same rights to settlers as existed before. The Royal Charter ignored the First Nations who were already living on the land and exercising sovereignty over it, and the Hudson's Bay Company had not acquired title to the land from the Aboriginal communities prior to their negotiations with Canada that began in 1856. When granted the English Royal Charter in 1670 by King Charles II of England, the Hudson’s Bay Company, under the governorship of the king's cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, was granted "the sole Trade and Commerce of all those Seas, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, Creeks, and Sounds, in whatsoever Latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the commonly called Hudson's, together with all the Lands, Countries and Territories, upon the Coasts and Confines of the Seas,, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, Creeks and Sounds, aforesaid, which are not now actually possessed by any of our Subjects, or by the Subjects of any other Christian Prince or State", "and that the said Land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed as one of our Plantations or Colonies in America, called Rupert's Land".
After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned (the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin, known as Rupert's Land) to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender, authorised by the Rupert's Land Act 1868.

North-Western Territory

History of the North-Western TerritoryNord-OuestNorth-West Territories
Following merger with the North West Company in 1821, the Hudson’s Bay Company's monopoly privileges and licence were extended to trade over the North-Western Territory.
Named for where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land, the territory at its greatest extent covered what is now Yukon, mainland Northwest Territories, northwestern mainland Nunavut, northwestern Saskatchewan, northern Alberta and northern British Columbia.

Treaty of 1818

Anglo-American Convention of 18181818London Convention
The southern border west of Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains was the drainage divide between the Mississippi and Saskatchewan watersheds until the London Convention of 1818 substituted the 49th Parallel.
The British ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and east of the Continental Divide, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the United States ceded the northernmost edge of the Missouri Territory north of the 49th parallel.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec.
After the British arrival in Canada, approximately half of the province of Alberta, south of the Athabasca River drainage, became part of Rupert's Land which consisted of all land drained by rivers flowing into Hudson Bay.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec.
Rupert's Land, defined as the drainage basin of Hudson Bay, was claimed by Britain, and included much of today's Northern Ontario.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.

North West Company

XY CompanyNorthwest CompanyNorthwest Fur Company
Following merger with the North West Company in 1821, the Hudson’s Bay Company's monopoly privileges and licence were extended to trade over the North-Western Territory.
Despite its efforts, the North West Company was at a distinct disadvantage in competing for furs with the Hudson's Bay Company, whose charter gave it a virtual monopoly in Rupert's Land, where the best furs were trapped.

Northwest Territories

North-West TerritoriesNTNorth West Territories
Due to the Royal Charter and the later Rupert's Land Act 1868, the Crown held the attitude that they already possessed the land, and that the treaties were a peaceful way to allow for settlement of the Northwest Territories in lands the Crown already owned.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land.

Rupert's Land Act 1868

Rupert's Land Actceded Rupert's LandRupert's Land was transferred
Due to the Royal Charter and the later Rupert's Land Act 1868, the Crown held the attitude that they already possessed the land, and that the treaties were a peaceful way to allow for settlement of the Northwest Territories in lands the Crown already owned. The Rupert's Land Act 1868 of the United Kingdom Parliament authorized the sale of Rupert's Land to Canada with the understanding that Rupert's Land' shall include the whole of the Lands and Territories held or claimed to be held by the" Hudson's Bay Company. The prevailing attitude of the time was that Rupert’s Land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company because "From the beginning to the end, the [Hudson’s Bay Company] had always claimed up to the parallel 49", and argued that the Royal Charter and various Acts of Parliament granted them "all the regions under British dominion watered by streams flowing into Hudson Bay". Rupert's Land had been essentially a private continental estate covering 3.9 million km 2 in the heart of North America that stretched from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and from the prairies to the Arctic Circle. Even Sir John A. Macdonald saw the land as being sold to Canada: "No explanation has been made of the arrangement by which the country (Rupert's Land) is handed over to the Queen, and that it is her Majesty who transfers the country to Canada with the same rights to settlers as existed before.
c.105) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was), authorizing the transfer of Rupert's Land from the control of the Hudson's Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada.

George Simpson (HBC administrator)

George SimpsonSir George SimpsonGeorge Simpson (administrator)
George Simpson, one of the most noted company administrators, held a particularly dim view of mixed-blood workers and kept them from attaining positions in the company higher than postmaster.
1792 – 7 September 1860) was a Scottish explorer and colonial governor of Rupert's Land, the Hudson's Bay Company during the period of its greatest power.

Hudson Bay drainage basin

Hudson Bay watersheddrains a very large areaHudson Bay
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
The Hudson Bay drainage basin coincides almost completely with the former territory Rupert's Land, claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 17th century, and an ideal area for the early fur trade in northern and central North America.

Red River Colony

Red River SettlementRed RiverSelkirk Settlement
In 1839 the Hudson's Bay Company were convinced of the need to dispense formal justice throughout Rupert's Land and established a court at the Red River Colony, in the "District of Assiniboia", south of Lake Winnipeg.
This land was granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company, which is referred to as the Selkirk Concession, which included the portions of Rupert's Land, or the watershed of Hudson Bay, bounded on the north by the line of 52° N latitude roughly from the Assiniboine River east to Lake Winnipegosis.

Hudson Bay

Hudson's BayHudsonBaie d'Hudson
In 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) was granted a charter by King Charles II, giving it a trading monopoly over the watershed of all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay, an area known as "Rupert's Land" (named in honour of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the king's cousin and the company's first governor).
The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land.

John A. Macdonald

Sir John A. MacdonaldJohn Alexander MacdonaldMacdonald
The Rupert's Land Act 1868 of the United Kingdom Parliament authorized the sale of Rupert's Land to Canada with the understanding that Rupert's Land' shall include the whole of the Lands and Territories held or claimed to be held by the" Hudson's Bay Company. The prevailing attitude of the time was that Rupert’s Land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company because "From the beginning to the end, the [Hudson’s Bay Company] had always claimed up to the parallel 49", and argued that the Royal Charter and various Acts of Parliament granted them "all the regions under British dominion watered by streams flowing into Hudson Bay". Rupert's Land had been essentially a private continental estate covering 3.9 million km 2 in the heart of North America that stretched from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and from the prairies to the Arctic Circle. Even Sir John A. Macdonald saw the land as being sold to Canada: "No explanation has been made of the arrangement by which the country (Rupert's Land) is handed over to the Queen, and that it is her Majesty who transfers the country to Canada with the same rights to settlers as existed before.
Immediately upon Confederation, he sent commissioners to London who in due course successfully negotiated the transfer of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada.

Lake Winnipeg

WinnipegWinnipeg LakeLake Winnipeg, Manitoba
In 1839 the Hudson's Bay Company were convinced of the need to dispense formal justice throughout Rupert's Land and established a court at the Red River Colony, in the "District of Assiniboia", south of Lake Winnipeg.
This watershed area was known as Rupert's Land when the Hudson's Bay Company was chartered in 1670.

Métis in Canada

MétisMetisMétis people
This necessarily meant the hiring of many First Nations and Métis workers.
The Hudson's Bay Company, which now administered a monopoly over the territory then called Rupert's Land, assigned plots of land to European settlers.

Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in Canada
The Royal Charter ignored the First Nations who were already living on the land and exercising sovereignty over it, and the Hudson's Bay Company had not acquired title to the land from the Aboriginal communities prior to their negotiations with Canada that began in 1856.
They were children of Rupert's Land fur trade typically of Orcadian, Scottish, or English paternal descent and Aboriginal maternal descent.

Charles II of England

Charles IIKing Charles IIKing Charles II of England
In 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) was granted a charter by King Charles II, giving it a trading monopoly over the watershed of all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay, an area known as "Rupert's Land" (named in honour of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the king's cousin and the company's first governor). When granted the English Royal Charter in 1670 by King Charles II of England, the Hudson’s Bay Company, under the governorship of the king's cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, was granted "the sole Trade and Commerce of all those Seas, Bays, Rivers, Lakes, Creeks, and Sounds, in whatsoever Latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the commonly called Hudson's, together with all the Lands, Countries and Territories, upon the Coasts and Confines of the Seas,, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, Creeks and Sounds, aforesaid, which are not now actually possessed by any of our Subjects, or by the Subjects of any other Christian Prince or State", "and that the said Land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed as one of our Plantations or Colonies in America, called Rupert's Land".
In 1670, Charles granted control of the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin to the Hudson's Bay Company by royal charter, and named the territory Rupert's Land, after his cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the company's first Governor.

Red River Rebellion

Red River Resistance1869Riel Rebellion
Control was originally planned to be transferred on 1 December 1869, but due to the premature action of the new lieutenant governor, William McDougall, the people of Red River formed a provisional government that took control until arrangements could be negotiated by leaders of what is known as the Red River Resistance and the newly formed Government of Canada.
For a period it had been a territory called Rupert's Land under control of the Hudson's Bay Company.