The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.
Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and the Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during a 1920 speech in Moscow
Location of the Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union in 1936
The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.
Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.
Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014
Topographic map of Russia
Köppen climate classification of Russia.
Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.
Chart for the political system of Russia
Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.
Sukhoi Su-57, a fifth-generation fighter of the Russian Air Force.
Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, anti-war protests broke out across Russia. The protests have been met with widespread repression, leading to roughly 15,000 being arrested.
The Moscow International Business Center in Moscow. The city has one of the world's largest urban economies.
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow is the most iconic religious architecture of Russia.
Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.
Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.
The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), in a 1893 painting by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov
Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.
Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe.
Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.

Transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.

- Russia

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A view of Kazan by Adam Olearius, 1630
A view of the city c. 1767
Annunciation Cathedral of Kazan Kremlin, 1561–1562
Kazan city map from the 19th century, Russian edition
Dmitry Medvedev visits Kazan.
Bauman street
Millennium Bridge
City districts of Kazan
Kazan IT-Park
Korston-Kazan with local World Trade Center
A NefAZ bus on Tukay Square
An AKSM-843 tram passing by the Kirovskaya Dike
Trolleybus passing by the overpass on Richard Sorge Street
Kazan–Passazhirskaya, opened in 1894
Kazanskiy Rechnoy Port
The Bolaq Canal
Kazan International Airport
Population of Kazan since 1800
Qolşärif Mosque grand mosque
Belltower of Epiphany Church
Kazan Federal University
Main building of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences
Kazan town hall (before 1917 – the Hall of Nobility)
Cabinet of Ministers
Presidential Palace
The Kazan Arena hosted the 2018 FIFA World Cup games.
Kazan rowing center
Satellite view
Night aerial view of radial Kazan
The National Museum of Tatarstan
Palace of agriculture
Pyramid concert hall
Kazan circus
Children's palace
Temple of All Religions

Kazan (Каза́нь; Казан IPA : [qɑzan]) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia.

East Slavs

The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs.

A young girl of Slavic appearance in a Ukrainian folk costume, by Nikolay Rachkov
Maximum extent of European territory inhabited by the East Slavic tribes—predecessors of Kievan Rus', the first East Slavic state —in the 8th and 9th centuries.
Ethnic Russians in former Soviet Union states according to the most recent census
Three generations of a Russian family, c. 1910
Belarusians in traditional dress
Ukrainians in traditional dress
Russians in traditional dress of Vologda region
Bread and salt greeting ceremony in Vladivostok, Russia
Bread and salt greeting ceremony in Kyiv, Ukraine

They speak the East Slavic languages, and formed the majority of the population of the medieval state Kievan Rus', which all three independent East Slavic states (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) claim as their cultural ancestor.

Nizhny Novgorod

Administrative centre of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and the Volga Federal District.

Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Poles (painting by Konstantin Makovsky, 1896).
Main building of the Great Russian Fair, 19th-century postcard
Victory Day on the Minin and Pozharsky Square, 9 May 1945
Administrative divisions of Nizhny Novgorod
Historical center of the city
State Bank of Nizhny Novgorod, built in 1913
Avtozavodskaya metro station
Emperor's Pavilion on Moskovsky railway terminal.
River terminal
Nizhny Novgorod-Bor Cableway
Strigino International Airport.
The Main Fair Building
The State art gallery
Pechersky Ascension Monastery
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (New Fair Cathedral)
Main Entrance of Medical University
Nizhpoligraf - Polygraphic industrial and Publishing Center
View of TV-Tower
House of the Communication
Volga riverside, Kremlin and Chkalov Stairs view
Minin and Pozharsky Square
Church of the Nativity
The Spit (confluence of Oka and Volga Rivers)
Lower-Volga River embankment

Nizhny Novgorod is the sixth-largest city in Russia, the second-most populous city on the Volga, as well as the Volga Federal District.

Eastern Europe

Ambiguous term that refers to the eastern portions of the European continent.

Computer rendering of Eastern Europe
Traditional cultural borders of Europe: usage recommendation by the Standing Committee on Geographical Names, Germany.
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Russia, a transcontinental country with around 23 percent of its landmass situated in Eastern Europe, is the largest European country by area, spanning roughly 40 percent of Europe's total landmass; it is also the most populous European country, with the majority of its citizens residing in its European portion and consequently comprising over 15 percent of the continent's population.


Continent, also recognised as a part of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population.

North Asia

Map of Northern Asia in 1921
Putorana Plateau
Kamchatka Peninsula
Russians in Vladivostok, on Russia's Pacific Coast

North Asia or Northern Asia, also referred to as Siberia, is the northern region of Asia, which is defined in geographical terms and is coextensive with the Asian part of Russia, and consists of three Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Ural, Siberia and the Russian Far East.

Constitution of Russia

For previous constitutions, see Russian constitution (disambiguation).

In miniature book version.
Dmitry Medvedev takes the presidential oath with his right hand resting on the Constitution, 7 May 2008.

Russia's constitution came into force on 25 December 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government.

Time in Russia

October 2014: 11 zones – data from 2009
28 March 2010 (with DST)
13 September 2011 ("permanent DST")

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00.

List of cities and towns in Russia by population

Federal subjects of Russia by population density

This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 at the 2010 census.

Borders of Russia

Typical border marker of Russia

Russia, the largest country in the world, has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan, as well as the Russian recognized borders with the partially recognized states of Donetsk People's Republic, Lugansk People's Republic, South Ossetia and Abkhazia.