A report on Russian language

Hemisphere view
Competence of Russian in countries of the former Soviet Union (except Russia), 2004
Percentage of people in Ukraine with Russian as their native language (according to a 2001 census) (by region)
A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first East Slavic printed textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574 in Lviv. This page features the Cyrillic script.
Russian vowel chart by
This page from an "ABC" book printed in Moscow in 1694 shows the letter П.
The Ostromir Gospels of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.

East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia.

- Russian language
Hemisphere view

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Schematic depiction according to genetic studies by Alena Kushniarevich

Ukrainian language

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East Slavic language of the Indo-European language family.

East Slavic language of the Indo-European language family.

Schematic depiction according to genetic studies by Alena Kushniarevich
Percentage of people with Ukrainian as their native language according to 2001 census (by region).
Domini Georgi Regis Russiae; Lord George (Yuri), the King of Rus
King's seal of Yuri I of Halych (reign: 1301–1308) "S[igillum] Domini Georgi Regis Rusie" (left), "S[igillum] Domini Georgi Ducis Ladimerie" (right).
"Moneta Rvssie" coined in 1382 based on groschen
Miniature of St Luke from the Peresopnytsia Gospels (1561).
Ukrainian speakers in the Russian Empire (1897)
The Ukrainian text in this Soviet poster reads: "The social base of the USSR is an unbreakable union of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia".
The 1921 Soviet recruitment poster. It uses traditional Ukrainian imagery with Ukrainian-language text: "Son! Enroll in the school of Red commanders, and the defense of Soviet Ukraine will be ensured."
Anti-russification protest. The banner reads "Ukrainian school for Ukrainian kids!".
While Russian was a de facto official language of the Soviet Union in all but formal name, all national languages were proclaimed equal. The name and denomination of Soviet banknotes were listed in the languages of all fifteen Soviet republics. On this 1961 one-ruble note, the Ukrainian for "one ruble", один карбованець (odyn karbovanets`), directly follows the Russian один рубль (odin rubl`).
Fluency in Ukrainian (purple column) and Russian (blue column) in 1989 and 2001
Modern signs in the Kyiv Metro are in Ukrainian. The evolution in their language followed the changes in the language policies in post-war Ukraine. Originally, all signs and voice announcements in the metro were in Ukrainian, but their language was changed to Russian in the early 1980s, at the height of Shcherbytsky's gradual Russification. In the perestroika liberalization of the late 1980s, the signs were changed to bilingual. This was accompanied by bilingual voice announcements in the trains. In the early 1990s, both signs and voice announcements were changed again from bilingual to Ukrainian-only during the de-russification campaign that followed Ukraine's independence. Since 2012 the signs have been in both Ukrainian and English.
Ukrainian language traffic sign for the Ivan Franko Museum in Kryvorivnia.
Sign in both Ukrainian and Romanian languages in the village of Valea Vișeului (Vyshivska Dolyna), Bistra commune, in Romania
Ukrainian keyboard layout
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Map of Ukrainian dialects and subdialects (2005).
Northern groupSouth-eastern groupSouth-western group

Comparisons are often drawn to Russian, a prominent Slavic language, but there is more mutual intelligibility with Belarusian, Ukrainian's closest relative.

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.

Cyrillic script

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Writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

Writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.
Cyrillic Script Monument in Antarctica
View of the cave monastery near the village of Krepcha, Opaka Municipality in Bulgaria. Here is found the oldest Cyrillic inscription, dated 921.
A page from Азбука (Букварь) (ABC (Reader)), the first Russian language textbook, printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic alphabet.
A page from the Church Slavonic Grammar of Meletius Smotrytsky (1619)
Letters Ge, De, I, I kratkoye, Me, Te, Tse, Be and Ve in upright (printed) and cursive (handwritten) variants. (Top is set in Georgia font, bottom in Odessa Script.)
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Alternate variants of lowercase (cursive) Cyrillic letters: Б/б, Д/д, Г/г, И/и, П/п, Т/т, Ш/ш. 
Default Russian (Eastern) forms on the left.
Alternate Bulgarian (Western) upright forms in the middle. 
Alternate Serbian/Macedonian (Southern) italic forms on the right.
See also: 
Cyrillic cursive.svg Special Cyrillics BGDPT.svg

Slavic languages: Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbo-Croatian (Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin), Ukrainian

Balto-Slavic language tree.

Slavic languages

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The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

Balto-Slavic language tree.
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Baška tablet, 11th century, Krk, Croatia.
14th-century Novgorodian children were literate enough to send each other letters written on birch bark.
10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, canonical monument of Old Church Slavonic
Map and tree of Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
West Slav tribes in 9th–10th centuries
Linguistic maps of Slavic languages
Map of all areas where the Russian language is the language spoken by the majority of the population.

Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Bulgarian and Macedonian (eastern dialects of the South group), and Serbo-Croatian and Slovene (western dialects of the South group).

East Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th century

Russians

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East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, who share a common Russian ancestry, culture, and history.

East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, who share a common Russian ancestry, culture, and history.

East Slavic tribes and peoples, 8th–9th century
The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy Lebedev
The Russian Empire at its greatest extent, including spheres of influence
Ethnic Russians in former Soviet Union states in 1994
The percentage of ethnic Russians in the former Soviet Union according to last censuses
Russian Orthodox Church in Shanghai (c. 1948), whose 25,000-strong Russian community was one of China's largest
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery in Paris, the resting place of many eminent Russian émigrés after 1917
Russian people in Saint-Petersburg.
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
Poster of Battleship Potemkin (1925) by Sergei Eisenstein, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square, Moscow, one of the most recognisable symbols of the country
Annunciation Cathedral in Voronezh
thumb|Lipovans in the Danube delta
Russia's Arctic coastline from the White Sea to the Bering Strait had been explored and settled by Pomors, Russian settlers from Novgorod
Terek Cossacks of the north Caucasus guarded the southern frontier
thumb|Lipovans in the Danube delta
Russian has official status.
Russian is not official but is spoken by more than 30% of the population.

Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, is the shared mother tongue of the Russians; and Orthodox Christianity is their historical religion since the 11th century.

Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages

Belarusian language

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East Slavic language.

East Slavic language.

Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
The first Lithuanian statute of 1529, in Ruthenian
The Bible by Francysk Skaryna in Ruthenian, 16th century
The cover of the copy of the Dictionary of the Belarusian Local Tongue by Ivan Nasovič preserved at the Francis Skaryna Belarusian Library and Museum

Before Belarus gained independence in 1991, the language was only known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, the compound term retaining the English-language name for the Russian language in its second part, or alternatively as White Russian.

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East Slavic languages

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The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages.

The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages.

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The common consensus is that the existing East Slavic languages are Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian, Rusyn is mostly considered as a separate language but some classify it as a dialect of Ukrainian.

Uzbekistan

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Doubly landlocked country located in Central Asia.

Doubly landlocked country located in Central Asia.

Female statuette wearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the second millennium BC
Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus. Mosaic in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Triumphant crowd at Registan, Sher-Dor Madrasah. The Emir of Bukhara viewing the severed heads of Russian soldiers on poles. Painting by Vasily Vereshchagin (1872).
Russian troops taking Samarkand in 1868, by Nikolay Karazin.
Two Sart men and two Sart boys in Samarkand, c. 1910
Map of Uzbekistan, including the former Aral Sea.
Uzbekistan map of Köppen climate classification
Cotton picking near Kyzyl-Kala, Karakalpakstan.
Map of flooded areas as a result of the collapse of the Sardoba Reservoir
Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014
The Legislative Chamber of Uzbekistan (Lower House).
Islam Karimov, the first President of Uzbekistan, during a visit to the Pentagon in 2002
President Islam Karimov with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Samarkand in November 2015
Leaders present at the SCO summit in Ufa, Russia in 2015
Political Map of Uzbekistan
A proportional representation of Uzbekistan exports, 2019
Yodgorlik silk factory
Bread sellers in Urgut
Population pyramid 2016
Newlywed couples visit Tamerlane's statues to receive wedding blessings.
Uzbek children
Shakh-i Zindeh mosque, Samarkand
Mosque of Bukhara
Bukharan Jews, c. 1899
A page in Uzbek language written in Nastaʿlīq script printed in Tashkent 1911
Central Station of Tashkent
The Afrosiyob high-speed train
Uzbek troops during a cooperative operation exercise
Traditional Uzbek pottery
Navoi Opera Theater in Tashkent
Embroidery from Uzbekistan
Silk and Spice Festival in Bukhara
Palov
Uzbek manti
Milliy Stadium in Tashkent.

The Uzbek language is the majority-spoken language in Uzbekistan; other languages include the Russian language and the Tajik language.

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.

Indo-European languages

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The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.
Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation
Indo-European language family tree based on "Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis of Indo-European languages" by Chang et al
Scheme of Indo-European language dispersals from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the widely held Kurgan hypothesis. – Center: Steppe cultures 1 (black): Anatolian languages (archaic PIE) 2 (black): Afanasievo culture (early PIE) 3 (black) Yamnaya culture expansion (Pontic-Caspian steppe, Danube Valley) (late PIE) 4A (black): Western Corded Ware 4B-C (blue & dark blue): Bell Beaker; adopted by Indo-European speakers 5A-B (red): Eastern Corded ware 5C (red): Sintashta (proto-Indo-Iranian) 6 (magenta): Andronovo 7A (purple): Indo-Aryans (Mittani) 7B (purple): Indo-Aryans (India) [NN] (dark yellow): proto-Balto-Slavic 8 (grey): Greek 9 (yellow):Iranians – [not drawn]: Armenian, expanding from western steppe
Some significant isoglosses in Indo-European daughter languages at around 500 BC.
Blue: centum languages
Red: satem languages
Orange: languages with augment
Green: languages with PIE *-tt- > -ss-
Tan: languages with PIE *-tt- > -st-
Pink: languages with instrumental, dative and ablative plural endings (and some others) in *-m- rather than *-bh-
Countries where Indo-European language family is majority native
Countries where Indo-European language family is official but not majority native
Countries where Indo-European language family is not official

Some European languages of this family, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Dutch, and Spanish, have expanded through colonialism in the modern period and are now spoken across several continents.

Koine Greek

Lingua franca

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Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Koine Greek
The Hispanophone and influential areas
Status of Arabic language map
Areas where Russian is the majority language (medium blue) or a minority language (light blue)
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language, and the much wider area of the Indo-Aryan language group (gray), where it is lengua franca
Countries where Malay is spoken
Geographic extent of Swahili. Dark green: native range. Medium green: official use. Light green: bilingual use but not official.
Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian (including dialects)
Rough territorial extent of Hand Talk (in purple) within the US and Canada
English language distribution
Regions where English is a majority native language
Regions where English is official or widely spoken, but not as a primary native language
The Francophone World
States where French is the majority native language
States where it is an official or administrative language but not a majority native language
States where it is a minority or secondary language
States that have a local francophone minority
The Lusophone worldNative language
Official and administrative language
Cultural or secondary language
Portuguese-speaking minorities
Portuguese-based creole languages

Likewise, Arabic, French, Mandarin Chinese, and Russian serve similar purposes as industrial and educational lingua francas across regional and national boundaries.

Old East Slavic

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Map and tree of Balto-Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
A page from Svyatoslav's Miscellanies (1073).
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Ostromir Gospels from Novgorod (mid-eleventh century)
Literate fourteenth-century Novgorodian children sent each other letters written on birch bark
First page of the tenth-century Novgorod Codex, thought to be the oldest East Slavic book in existence

Old East Slavic (traditionally also Old Russian; старажытнаруская мова; древнерусский язык; давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and its successor states, from which the Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn, and Ukrainian languages later evolved.