Russification of Finland

RussificationRussification policyFebruary Manifesto Russificationabolition of Finland's autonomous statusattemptsattempts to assimilate FinlandFinlandfirst period of oppressionfirst russification period
The policy of Russification of Finland (Finnish: sortokaudet/sortovuodet - times/years of oppression) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire aimed at limiting the special status of the Grand Duchy of Finland and possibly the termination of its political autonomy and cultural uniqueness in 1899–1905 and in 1908–1917.wikipedia
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Grand Duchy of Finland

FinlandFinnishGrand Duchy
The policy of Russification of Finland (Finnish: sortokaudet/sortovuodet - times/years of oppression) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire aimed at limiting the special status of the Grand Duchy of Finland and possibly the termination of its political autonomy and cultural uniqueness in 1899–1905 and in 1908–1917.
Tensions increased after the Russification policies were enacted in 1889, which saw the introduction of limited autonomy and reduction of Finnish cultural expression.

Great Petition

people's addresspetitions
The two Russification campaigns evoked widespread Finnish resistance, starting with petitions and escalating to strikes, passive resistance (including draft resistance) and eventually active resistance.
The Great Petition was a document produced in Finland in 1899, during the first period of the Russification of Finland.

Nikolay Bobrikov

Nikolai BobrikovNikolai Ivanovich BobrikovBobrikov
The manifesto was forced through the Finnish senate by the deciding vote of the senate president, an appointee of the tsar—and after the governor-general of Finland, Nikolay Bobrikov, had threatened a military invasion and siege.
In 1899, Nicholas II signed the "February Manifesto" which marks the beginning of the first "Years of Oppression" (sortovuodet) from the traditional Finnish perspective.

Finnish Army

ArmyFinnishFinnish Army (1939)
The Finnish army was gradually broken up during the "oppression years" just after the turn of the century.

Finnish Declaration of Independence

Finland's declaration of independenceFinnish independenceFinland's independence
Finnish opposition to Russification was one of the main factors that ultimately led to Finland's declaration of independence in 1917.

1905 Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution of 1905Revolution of 19051905 Revolution
From April 1903 until the Russian Revolution of 1905, the governor-general was granted dictatorial powers. The Russification campaign was suspended and partially reversed in 1905–07 during a period of civil unrest throughout the Russian empire following Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War.
It also resulted in a temporary halt to the Russification policy that Russia had started in 1899.

Kagal (Finnish resistance movement)

KagalKagal (Finnish society)Kagaali
In the history of Finland, the Kagal was a resistance movement that existed before the 1905 Russian Revolution and founded under the period of Russian oppression, in resistance to the oppressive government of Governor-General Nikolai Bobrikov which actively conducted Russification of Finland.

Anti-Russian sentiment

Russophobiaanti-RussianRussophobic
With the increasing cultural exchange between neighboring countries (Scandinavism) and the nationalist revival in Finland (through Johan Ludvig Runeberg and Elias Lönnrot), contempt with the attempts of Russification of Finland spread to Sweden.

Jäger Movement

Finnish Jäger troopsJägerJägers
The program was reintroduced in 1908 on, costing Finland much of its autonomy and again causing further Finnish resistance, including the Jäger movement.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
The policy of Russification of Finland (Finnish: sortokaudet/sortovuodet - times/years of oppression) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire aimed at limiting the special status of the Grand Duchy of Finland and possibly the termination of its political autonomy and cultural uniqueness in 1899–1905 and in 1908–1917.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
The policy of Russification of Finland (Finnish: sortokaudet/sortovuodet - times/years of oppression) was a governmental policy of the Russian Empire aimed at limiting the special status of the Grand Duchy of Finland and possibly the termination of its political autonomy and cultural uniqueness in 1899–1905 and in 1908–1917.

Russification

RussifiedRussifyRussianized
It was a part of a larger policy of Russification pursued by late 19th–early 20th century Russian governments which tried to abolish cultural and administrative autonomy of non-Russian minorities within the empire.

Finnish War

Russo-Swedish WarFinlandRusso-Swedish War of 1808–1809
Russia attacked Sweden in 1808, in what became later known as the Finnish War.

Diet of Finland

DietFinnish DietDiet of Porvoo
In 1809 the Diet of Finland recognized Alexander I of Russia as grand duke.

Alexander I of Russia

Alexander ITsar Alexander IEmperor Alexander I
In 1809 the Diet of Finland recognized Alexander I of Russia as grand duke.

Alexander II of Russia

Alexander IITsar Alexander IIEmperor Alexander II
This promise was maintained; indeed, Alexander II amplified the powers of the Finnish diet in 1869.

Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas IITsar Nicholas IICzar Nicholas II
Having enjoyed prosperity and control over their own affairs, and having remained loyal subjects for nearly a century, the manifesto which Nicholas II issued on 15 February 1899 was cause for Finnish despair.

Governor-General of Finland

Governor-GeneralGovernor General of FinlandGovernor General
The manifesto was forced through the Finnish senate by the deciding vote of the senate president, an appointee of the tsar—and after the governor-general of Finland, Nikolay Bobrikov, had threatened a military invasion and siege.

Censorship

censoredcensorcensors
The imperial government responded with a purge of opponents of Russification within the Finnish administration and more stringent censorship.

Conscription

conscripteddrafteddraft
However the passive resistance campaign also had some successes, notably a de facto reversal of the new conscription law.

Russo-Japanese War

Russian-Japanese WarRusso Japanese WarRusso–Japanese War
The Russification campaign was suspended and partially reversed in 1905–07 during a period of civil unrest throughout the Russian empire following Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War.