Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

Russo-Turkish WarRusso-Turkish War (1877–78)Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878Russian-Turkish WarRusso-Turkish War, 1877-1878
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (93 Harbi, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско–турска Освободителна война, "Russian–Turkish Liberation war") was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.wikipedia
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Kingdom of Romania

RomaniaRomanian KingdomRomanian
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (93 Harbi, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско–турска Освободителна война, "Russian–Turkish Liberation war") was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War (known locally as the Romanian War of Independence), when it also received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia.

Congress of Berlin

Berlin CongressBerlin AgreementBerlin Congress of 1878
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus.
It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

Principality of Bulgaria

BulgariaBulgarian PrincipalityBulgarian
After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396–1878), a Bulgarian state re-emerged: the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania), as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital.
After the Russo-Turkish War ended with a Russian victory, the Treaty of San Stefano was signed by Russia and the Ottoman Empire on 3 March 1878.

19th century

nineteenth century19th19th-century
Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism.
It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War.

Treaty of San Stefano

San Stefanoat San Stefanopeace treaty
The initial Treaty of San Stefano, signed on 3 March 1878, is today celebrated on Liberation Day in Bulgaria, although the occasion somewhat fell out of favour during years of Socialist rule.
The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (93 Harbi, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско–турска Освободителна война, "Russian–Turkish Liberation war") was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
In early 1877, Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78).

Cyprus

CypriotRepublic of CyprusCYP
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus.
In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) and the Congress of Berlin, Cyprus was leased to the British Empire which de facto took over its administration in 1878 (though, in terms of sovereignty, Cyprus remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 November 1914, together with Egypt and Sudan) in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (93 Harbi, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско–турска Освободителна война, "Russian–Turkish Liberation war") was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) ended with a decisive victory for Russia.

Enosis

unionunion with Greeceunification of Cyprus and Greece
The Cretan Revolt, which began in 1866, resulted from the failure of the Ottoman Empire to apply reforms for improving the life of the population and the Cretans' desire for enosis — union with Greece.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 Greece remained neutral, as a result of assurances by the Great Powers that her territorial claims on the Ottoman Empire would be considered after the war.

Kingdom of Greece

GreeceGreekGreek Kingdom
The Cretan Revolt, which began in 1866, resulted from the failure of the Ottoman Empire to apply reforms for improving the life of the population and the Cretans' desire for enosis — union with Greece.
When war broke out between Russia and the Ottomans in 1877, popular Greek sentiment rallied to Russia's side, but Greece was too poor and too concerned about British intervention, to officially enter the war.

Balkans

Balkan PeninsulaBalkanWestern Balkans
Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism.
Bulgaria insisted on its status quo territorial integrity, divided and shared by the Great Powers next to the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) in other boundaries and on the pre-war Bulgarian-Serbian agreement.

Januarius MacGahan

Januarius A. MacGahanJanuarius Aloysius MacGahan
In Britain, where Disraeli's government was committed to supporting the Ottomans in the ongoing Balkan crisis, the Liberal opposition newspaper Daily News hired American journalist Januarius A. MacGahan to report on the massacre stories firsthand.
His articles describing the massacre of Bulgarian civilians by Turkish soldiers and irregular volunteers in 1876 created public outrage in Europe, and were a major factor in preventing Britain from supporting Turkey in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, which led to Bulgaria gaining independence from the Ottoman Empire.

Sofia

Sofia, BulgariaSofia MunicipalitySerdica
After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396–1878), a Bulgarian state re-emerged: the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania), as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, Suleiman Pasha threatened to burn the city in defence, but the foreign diplomats Leandre Legay, Vito Positano, Rabbi Gabriel Almosnino and Josef Valdhart refused to leave the city thus saving it.

Alexander II of Russia

Alexander IITsar Alexander IIEmperor Alexander II
Meanwhile, Russia's Alexander II and Prince Gorchakov met Austria-Hungary's Franz Joseph I and Count Andrássy in the Reichstadt castle in Bohemia.
Despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, and conquered Turkestan.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus.
The next Russo-Ottoman war in 1877 led to another European intervention, although this time at the negotiating table.

Budjak

Southern BessarabiaBudzhakBugeac
As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum, and also annexed the Budjak region.
Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the Treaty of San Stefano and the Treaty of Berlin recognized the full independence of the new Kingdom of Romania (the principalities that formed it had already been de facto independent for half a century), but transferred the territories subject to the 1856 re-configuration back to the Russian Empire.

Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of Bulgaria
A compromise solution was negotiated, granting autonomy to Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina under the joint control of European powers.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State.

Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

decline of the Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empiredecline
Although on the winning side in the Crimean War, the Ottoman Empire continued to decline in power and prestige.
Following the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), the empire granted independence to all three belligerent nations.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus. Meanwhile, Russia's Alexander II and Prince Gorchakov met Austria-Hungary's Franz Joseph I and Count Andrássy in the Reichstadt castle in Bohemia. No written agreement was made, but during the discussions, Russia agreed to support Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Austria-Hungary, in exchange, agreed to support the return of Southern Bessarabia—lost by Russia during the Crimean War—and Russian annexation of the port of Batum on the east coast of the Black Sea.
Unable to mediate between the Ottoman Empire and Russia over the control of Serbia, Austria-Hungary declared neutrality when the conflict between the two powers escalated into a war.

Siege of Plevna

PlevnaBattle of PlevnaSiege of Pleven
Thus began the Siege of Plevna.
The Siege of Plevna, or Siege of Pleven, was a major battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, fought by the joint army of Russia and Romania against the Ottoman Empire.

Batumi

BatumBatoumBatumi, Georgia
No written agreement was made, but during the discussions, Russia agreed to support Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Austria-Hungary, in exchange, agreed to support the return of Southern Bessarabia—lost by Russia during the Crimean War—and Russian annexation of the port of Batum on the east coast of the Black Sea.
After the Turkish conquest Islamisation of the hitherto Christian region began but this was terminated and to a great degree reversed, after the area was re-annexed to Russian Imperial Georgia after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.

Crimean War

CrimeaCrimea WarCrimean
Although on the winning side in the Crimean War, the Ottoman Empire continued to decline in power and prestige. No written agreement was made, but during the discussions, Russia agreed to support Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Austria-Hungary, in exchange, agreed to support the return of Southern Bessarabia—lost by Russia during the Crimean War—and Russian annexation of the port of Batum on the east coast of the Black Sea. Additional factors included Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War of 1853–56, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.
In this later Russo-Turkish War the states of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro gained international recognition of their independence and Bulgaria achieved its autonomy from direct Ottoman rule.

George Warren Wood

G. W. Wood, Jr.George W. WoodGeorge Warren Wood Jr.
While in Constantinople in 1879, Protestant missionary George Warren Wood reported Turkish authorities in Amasia brutally persecuting Christian Armenian refugees from Soukoum Kaleh.
While in Constantinople in 1879, Wood reported Turkish authorities in Amasia brutally persecuting Christian Armenian refugees from Soukoum Kaleh during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78).

Pan-Slavism

Pan-SlavicPan-SlavistPanslavism
Russia worked to regain its right to maintain a fleet on the Black Sea and vied with the French in gaining influence in the Balkans by using the new Pan-Slavic idea that all Slavs should be united under Russian leadership.
This eventually led to the Balkan campaign of the Russian Empire, which resulted in the entire Balkan being liberated from the Ottoman Empire, with the help and the initiative of the Russian Empire.

Plovdiv

Plovdiv, BulgariaPhilippopolisFilibe
The way was now open for a quick advance through Plovdiv and Edirne to Constantinople.
On 4 January 1878, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Plovdiv was taken away from Ottoman rule by the Russian army.