Rusyns

RusynCarpatho-RusynCarpatho-RusynsRuthenianRutheniansRusyn peopleCarpathian RusCarpathian RussianCarpatho-RusinCarpatho-Russian
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.wikipedia
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Ukrainians

UkrainianUkraineethnic Ukrainians
Rusyns descend from Ruthenian peoples, who did not adopt the use of the ethnonym "Ukrainian" in the early 20th century. The ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is, however, politically controversial.
The people of Ukraine have historically been known as "Rusyns (Ruthenians)" and "Cossacks", among others.

Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaZakarpattiaCarpathia
The main population of Rusyns are Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians, Carpatho-Russians of Carpathian Ruthenia: a discrete cross-border region of western Ukraine, north-east Slovakia, and south-east Poland.
It is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Rusyn, Lemko, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Russian populations.

Ruthenians

RuthenianRusynsRuthenes
Rusyns descend from Ruthenian peoples, who did not adopt the use of the ethnonym "Ukrainian" in the early 20th century.
In its broadest usage, "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" referred to peoples which were ancestors of the modern Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns and Ukrainians.

East Slavs

East SlavicEastern SlavicEast
The ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is, however, politically controversial.
Formerly the main population of the loose medieval Kievan Rus federation state, by the seventeenth century they evolved into the Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn and Ukrainian people.

Hungary

🇭🇺HungarianHUN
Today, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Serbia and Croatia officially recognize contemporary Rusyns (or Ruthenes) as an ethnic minority. The Rusyns have always been subject to larger neighbouring powers, such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, Ukraine, and Russia.
The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers.

White Croats

Charvátsin and around todayWhite Croat
The region of Carpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpattia) and Prykarpattia since the Early Middle Age was inhabited by the tribes of White Croats and partly Dulebes.
It is considered that they got assimilated into Czech, Polish and Ukrainian ethnos, and are one of the predecessors of the Rusyn people.

Lemkos

LemkoLemko people Lemko
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos, Hutsuls and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans.
Their affiliation with other ethnicities is controversial, although individual Lemkos generally self-identity as a sub-group of Rusyns and/or Ukrainians.

Hutsuls

HutsulHutsul peoplea list of Hutsul people
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos, Hutsuls and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans.
While they often have been officially designated as a subgroup of Ukrainians, however Hutsuls mostly regard themselves as a part of a broader Rusyn ethnicity, alongside two other groups from the cross-border region of Transcarpathia: the Boykos and Lemkos.

Pannonian Rusyns

RusynsRusynRuthenians
The 2014 Y-DNA studies of 200 Pannonian Rusyns in the region of Vojvodina, Serbia, found they mostly belong to haplogroup R1a (43%), I2 (20%), E-V13 (12.5%), and R1b (8.5%), while I1, G2a, J2b, N1 between 2.5-4.5 percent, and J1, R1, T, and H only in traces of less than 1%. They clustered closest to the Ukrainian and Slovakian population, "providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population". The Pannonian Rusyns of the Croatia are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Križevci, and those in the region of Vojvodina (northern Serbia), are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Serbia.
Rusyns in Pannonia, or simply Rusyns or Ruthenians (Rusyn: Руснаци or Русини, Rusini, Русини), are a regional minority subgroup of the Rusyns, an Eastern Slavic peoples.

Boykos

BoikosBoykoBoyko people
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos, Hutsuls and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans.
In Ukraine, the classification of Boykos and other Rusyns as an East Slavic ethnicity, distinct from Ukrainians is controversial.

Paul Robert Magocsi

Magocsi, Paul R.P.R. MagocsiPaul Magosci
According to Paul Robert Magocsi, the origin of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns is complex and not exclusively related to the Kievan Rus'. The ancestors are the early Slavs whose movement to the Danubian Basin was influenced by Huns and Pannonian Avars between the 5th and 6th century, the White Croats who lived in both slopes of the Carpathians and built many hill-forts in the region including Uzhhorod ruled by mythical ruler Laborec, the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia, and Vlachian shepherds of Transylvania.
He currently acts as Honorary Chairman of the World Congress of Rusyns, and has authored many books on Rusyn history.

Uzhhorod

UngvárUzhgorodUngvar
According to Paul Robert Magocsi, the origin of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns is complex and not exclusively related to the Kievan Rus'. The ancestors are the early Slavs whose movement to the Danubian Basin was influenced by Huns and Pannonian Avars between the 5th and 6th century, the White Croats who lived in both slopes of the Carpathians and built many hill-forts in the region including Uzhhorod ruled by mythical ruler Laborec, the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia, and Vlachian shepherds of Transylvania.
According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
The main population of Rusyns are Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians, Carpatho-Russians of Carpathian Ruthenia: a discrete cross-border region of western Ukraine, north-east Slovakia, and south-east Poland. Today, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Serbia and Croatia officially recognize contemporary Rusyns (or Ruthenes) as an ethnic minority. The Rusyns have always been subject to larger neighbouring powers, such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, Ukraine, and Russia.
Other ethnic groups include Roma (2%), Czechs (0.6%), Rusyns (0.6%) and others or unspecified (7.6%).

West Ukrainian People's Republic

West UkraineWestern Ukrainian People's Republicattempt at self-determination
Prior to this time, some of the founders of the Lemko-Rusyn Republic were sentenced to death or imprisoned in Talerhof by the prosecuting attorney Kost Levytsky (Ukrainian: Кость Леви́цький), future president of the West Ukrainian National Republic.
Of these, 3,291,000 (approximately 60%) were Ukrainians, 1,351,000 (approximately 25%) were Poles, 660,000 (approximately 12%) were Jews, and the rest included Rusyns, Germans, Hungarians, Romanians, Czechs, Slovaks, Romani, Armenians and others.

Haplogroup I (mtDNA)

Ihaplogroup I2I5
Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I (11.3%), identical to 2005 sampled population of the island of Krk in Croatia indicating a founder effect, and the highest frequency of haplogroup Haplogroup M* in the region.
Nikitin 2009 found that Lemkos (a sub- or co-ethnic group of Rusyns) in the Carpathian mountains have the "highest frequency of haplogroup I (11.3%) in Europe, identical to that of the population of Krk Island (Croatia) in the Adriatic Sea".

Thalerhof internment camp

Prior to this time, some of the founders of the Lemko-Rusyn Republic were sentenced to death or imprisoned in Talerhof by the prosecuting attorney Kost Levytsky (Ukrainian: Кость Леви́цький), future president of the West Ukrainian National Republic.
The Austro-Hungarian authorities imprisoned Carpatho-Rusyns and Ukrainian Russophiles, as well as other Ukrainians and Lemkos from Galicia and Bukovina, considered unreliable during wartime.

Haplogroup R1a

R1aR1a1R-M17
The 2014 Y-DNA studies of 200 Pannonian Rusyns in the region of Vojvodina, Serbia, found they mostly belong to haplogroup R1a (43%), I2 (20%), E-V13 (12.5%), and R1b (8.5%), while I1, G2a, J2b, N1 between 2.5-4.5 percent, and J1, R1, T, and H only in traces of less than 1%. They clustered closest to the Ukrainian and Slovakian population, "providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population".
Hungarians, Poles, Slovaks, western Ukrainians (particularly Rusyns), Belarusians, Moldovans, and Russians.

Carpatho-Ukraine

Carpathian UkraineRutheniaTranscarpathia
The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, which existed for one day on March 15, 1939, before it was occupied by Hungarian troops, is sometimes considered to have been a self-determining Rusyn state that had intentions to unite with Kiev.
Not only did this transfer the homes of about 590,000 Hungarians to Hungary, but 290,000 Slovaks and 37,000 Rusyns as well.

Zakarpattia Oblast

ZakarpattiaTranscarpathiaZakarpattya
About 10,100 people, or 0.8%, of Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast (Province) identified themselves as Rusyns; by contrast, 1,010,000 considered themselves Ukrainians.
This total includes people of many different nationalities of which Hungarians, Romanians and Rusyns constitute significant minorities in some of the province's cities, while in others, they form the majority of the population (as in the case of Berehove).

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
The Rusyns have always been subject to larger neighbouring powers, such as Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, Ukraine, and Russia.
The population consisted of Czechs (51%), Slovaks (16%), Germans (22%), Hungarians (5%) and Rusyns (4%).

Dimitry Sydor

priest Sidor
A considerable controversy has arisen regarding the Rusyn separatist movement led by the Orthodox priest Dmitri Sidor (now Archbishop of Uzhorod, in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)), his relationship with the Russian Orthodox Church and funding for his activities.
Dmytro Dmytrovych Sydor (Дмитро Дмитрович Сидор, also known as Pop Sydor, born March 29, 1955 in Mukachevo Raion) is a Rusyn [Carpatho-Russian] archpriest of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Uzhhorod.

Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh

(Byzantine Catholic)Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan ChurchByzantine Catholic Metropolitan Province of Pittsburgh
Those in the diaspora in the United States established the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh.
The Byzantine Catholic Metropolia of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgensis ritus byzantini) is part of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church (whose members are mostly Rusyns from the Carpathian Mountains, but also Ukrainians, Hungarians, Slovaks, and Croats and their descendants) in the United States.

Belarusians

BelarusianBelorussianBelorusian
The ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is, however, politically controversial.

Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

Ruthenian Catholic ChurchRuthenianRuthenian Catholic
They have their own particular Church, the Ruthenian Catholic Church, distinct from the Latin Catholic Church.
The Ruthenian Catholic Church is rooted among the Rusyn people who lived in Carpathian Ruthenia.

Greek Catholic Eparchy of Križevci

Eparchy of KriževciKriževciEparch of Križevci
The Pannonian Rusyns of the Croatia are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Križevci, and those in the region of Vojvodina (northern Serbia), are organized under the Byzantine Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Serbia.
It mostly gathers its faithful among ethnic Croats in central and eastern Croatia, and among the Rusyns in eastern Slavonia, with a small Serbian minority.