S/PDIF

SPDIFIEC 61937digital audio outputDigital CoaxIEC958S/P-DIFS/PDIF fs 48kHzSPDIF (Sony Philips Digital Interface)
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances.wikipedia
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Coaxial cable

coaxialcoax cablecable
The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.
Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers to their antennas, computer network (e.g., Ethernet) connections, digital audio (S/PDIF), and distribution of cable television signals.

RCA connector

RCARCA jackphono
The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.
RCA connectors and cable are also commonly used to carry S/PDIF-formatted digital audio, with plugs colored orange to differentiate them from other typical connections.

AES3

AES/EBUAES-EBU embedded timecodeAES
S/PDIF is based on the AES3 interconnect standard.
AES3 has been incorporated into the International Electrotechnical Commission's standard IEC 60958, and is available in a consumer-grade variant known as S/PDIF.

DTS (sound system)

DTSDatasat Digital 5.1DTS 5.1
S/PDIF can carry two channels of uncompressed PCM audio or compressed 5.1/7.1 surround sound (such as DTS audio codec); it cannot support lossless surround formats that require greater bandwidth. This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS.
On the consumer level, DTS is the oft-used shorthand for the DTS Coherent Acoustics (DCA) codec, transportable through S/PDIF and part of the LaserDisc, DVD, and Blu-ray specifications.

Sony

Sony CorporationSony ElectronicsSony Corp.
Sony and Philips were the primary designers of S/PDIF.
Sony and Philips jointly developed the Sony-Philips digital interface format (S/PDIF) and the high-fidelity audio system SACD.

TOSLINK

opticaloptical audioanalog–optical audio mini-jack output
The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.
The software layer is based on the "Sony/Philips Digital Interface" (S/PDIF), while the hardware layer utilizes a fiber optic transmission system, rather than the electrical (copper) hardware layer of S/PDIF.

Pulse-code modulation

PCMLPCMLinear PCM
S/PDIF can carry two channels of uncompressed PCM audio or compressed 5.1/7.1 surround sound (such as DTS audio codec); it cannot support lossless surround formats that require greater bandwidth.

Digital audio

digital musicdigitalaudio
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances.

DVD player

DVD playersDVDconsumer entertainment device
This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS.
The physical connection is typically RCA connectors or TOSLINK, which transmits a S/PDIF stream carrying either uncompressed digital audio (PCM) or the original compressed audio data (Dolby Digital, DTS, MPEG audio) to be decoded by the audio equipment.

Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital 5.1AC3AC-3
This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS.
It converts any audio signals on a PC or game console into a 5.1-channel 16-bit/48 kHz Dolby Digital format at 640 kbit/s and transports it via a single S/PDIF cable.

Differential Manchester encoding

biphase mark codeFMBi-Phase
Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has either one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself.
As Biphase Mark Code (BMC), it is used in AES3, S/PDIF, SMPTE time code, and USB PD.

Word clock

wordclock
Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has either one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself.
S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, and TDIF are some of the formats that use a word clock.

ADAT Lightpipe

ADATADAT optical
Lightpipe uses the same connection hardware as S/PDIF: fiber optic cables (hence its name) to carry data, with Toslink connectors and optical transceivers at either end.

Ground loop (electricity)

ground loopsground loopGround noise
TOSLINK optical fiber, unlike coaxial cables, are immune to ground loops and RF interference.
Standard protocols such as S/PDIF, AES3 or TOSLINK are available in relatively inexpensive equipment and allow full isolation, so ground loops need not arise, especially when connecting between audio systems and computers.

Serial Copy Management System

SCMSSCMS-T
The device, once completed, was designed to be inserted in the digital link between SCMS enabled devices (the article was designed around the optical TOSLINK interface, but it would have been easy to adapt it to the S/PDIF coaxial link).

I²S

I2SI 2 Sintegrated interchip sound
This may form an alternative to the commonly used AES/EBU or Toslink or S/PDIF standards.

Dolby Digital Plus

E-AC-3E-AC3Enhanced AC-3
However, the S/PDIF interface has insufficient bandwidth to transport Dolby Digital Plus (E-AC-3) bitstreams at the 3.0Mbit/s datarate specified by HD DVD; lower datarates are possible.

Fiber-optic cable

optical fiber cablefiber optic cablefibre optic cable
The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fiber optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.

Home cinema

home theaterhome theatrehome theater system
This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS. S/PDIF interconnects components in home theaters and other digital high-fidelity systems.

Technical standard

standardstandardsindustry standard
S/PDIF is based on the AES3 interconnect standard.

Surround sound

Surround5.1 surround sound5.1
S/PDIF can carry two channels of uncompressed PCM audio or compressed 5.1/7.1 surround sound (such as DTS audio codec); it cannot support lossless surround formats that require greater bandwidth.

Data link layer

Layer 2Data linkLayer-2
S/PDIF is a data link layer protocol as well as a set of physical layer specifications for carrying digital audio signals between devices and components over either optical or electrical cable.

Physical layer

physicalLayer 1PHY
S/PDIF is a data link layer protocol as well as a set of physical layer specifications for carrying digital audio signals between devices and components over either optical or electrical cable.

Peripheral

peripheralsperipheral devicecomputer peripheral
S/PDIF is a data link layer protocol as well as a set of physical layer specifications for carrying digital audio signals between devices and components over either optical or electrical cable.