São Paulo (state)

"Founding of São Vicente", by Benedito Calixto
António Raposo Tavares, a colonial bandeirante
São Paulo in 1880 during the reign of Emperor Pedro II.
Coffee Stock Exchange, in Santos
Italian immigrants arriving in São Paulo.
The Immigrant magazine, 1908
Poster MMDC calling the Paulista people to arms during the Constitutionalist Revolution, in 1932.
Altino Arantes Building in São Paulo, opened in 1947.
Satellite image showing the state territory
Tiete River in the dam between the towns of Barra Bonita and Igaraçu do Tietê.
Köppen climate types of São Paulo
Snow at São Paulo state (Apiaí city) July, 1975.
Population density in the municipalities of São Paulo in 2002.
Liberdade district is a Little Tokyo of São Paulo city.
Bandeirantes Palace, the seat of state government
São Paulo as a divisor of Federal influence
São Paulo Stock Exchange
Harvesters in a field of sugar cane in Piracicaba
Orange in Avaré
Corn in Avaré
Banana in Avaré
Cattle in João Ramalho
REPLAN, the largest oil refinery in Brazil, in Paulínia
Headquarters of Mercedes-Benz Brazil in São Bernardo do Campo
Braskem industrial plant
Predilecta factory in Matão
EMS headquarters in Hortolândia
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory in Franca
Embraer 190, developed by Embraer in São José dos Campos.
Procter & Gamble factory in Louveira
Ubatuba, part of the Green Coast.
A shopping mall in a Swiss-inspired style, in Campos do Jordão.
The Sirius particle accelerator building of Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron in Campinas.
Student Housing complex, central campus of University of São Paulo in São Paulo.
Admission ceremony of Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo.
Classroom in University of Campinas in Campinas.
Teaching laboratory of Universidade Federal do ABC in Santo André.
Pacaembu Stadium
"Interlagos" race track.
Tiete River in the dam between the towns of Barra Bonita and Igaraçu do Tietê.
REPLAN, the largest oil refinery in Brazil, in Paulínia
Toyota headquarters in São Bernardo do Campo
Aerial view of University of São Paulo in São Paulo.
Pacaembu Stadium

One of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.

- São Paulo (state)

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Italian Brazilians

Italian Brazilians (italo-brasiliani, ítalo-brasileiros) are Brazilians of full or partial Italian descent.

The Cavalcanti family arrived in Brazil in 1560. Today this is the largest family in Brazil by a common ancestor.
"To the Province of S. Paulo, in Brazil. Immigrants: read these hints before leaving. S. Paulo, 1886"
A family of Italian emigrants
Italians getting into a ship to Brazil, 1910
A ship with Italian immigrants in the Port of Santos: 1907. Most migrants came to the State of São Paulo, and its main port, the entry gate of Brazil, was Santos. Thus, most migrants from Italy, regardless of their final destination in Brazil, entered through Santos.
A 19th-century house built by Italian immigrants in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul
Vida nova by Pedro Weingärtner, 1893. Acervo municipal de Nova Veneza.
Panoramic view of Ribeirão Preto. By 1902, 52% percent of the city's population was born in Italy.
Wine production introduced by Italians in Caxias do Sul
A typically Venetian community in Southern Brazil
Coffee plantation in the State of Minas Gerais which employed Italians
Italian immigrants in the Hospedaria dos Imigrantes, in São Paulo
Italian-Brazilian farmers in 1918
In the new neighborhoods follow up to infinite Italians houses, with balustrades, mantels, decorations in stucco and colorful symbolic figurines.
Lonis-Albert Gaffrée, a French priest in São Paulo (1911). Photo of Mooca.
Italians on Brazilian coffee plantation
Italian immigrants arriving in São Paulo (c. 1890)
Palmeiras supporters in Estádio Palestra Itália. The club was founded by Italians immigrants in São Paulo in 1914 as Società Sportiva Palestra Italia.
Saudades de Nápoles (1895) (Missing Naples). Painting by Bertha Worms (Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo).
Pictures of Caxias do Sul. The city was established by Italian immigrants, mostly farmers from the Veneto.
Italian people in Serra Gaúcha
The Church of Our Lady of Achiropita in Bixiga. The feast in honor of the Lady happens in August since 1926.
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Caravaggio located in Farroupilha. The city was founded by Italian immigrants as Nova Milano (New Milan). There are five other sanctuaries in Brazil.
The Italian-Brazilian Benvenutti family in 1928

Nowadays, it is possible to find millions of descendants of Italians, from the southeastern state of Minas Gerais to the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, with the majority living in São Paulo state and the highest percentage in the southeastern state of Espírito Santo (60-75%).


The Bandeirantes, literally "flag-carriers", were slavers, explorers, adventurers, and fortune hunters in early Colonial Brazil.

Battle of the militia of Mogi das Cruzes and the Botocudos
Monument to the Bandeiras in São Paulo, Brazil

They mostly hailed from the São Paulo region, called the Captaincy of São Vicente until 1709 and then as the Captaincy of São Paulo.

Independence of Brazil

The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that led to the independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves as the Brazilian Empire.

Landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in Brazil, South America, 1500.
The Portuguese Cortes
Prince Pedro (right) orders Portuguese officer Jorge de Avilez (left) to return to Portugal after his failed rebellion, 8 February 1822. José Bonifácio (in civilian clothes) can be seen next to the prince.
Prince Pedro is surrounded by a cheering crowd in São Paulo after giving the news of the Brazilian independence on 7 September 1822.
Coronation of Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Imperial Army entering Salvador after the surrender of the Portuguese forces in 1823.

Most of the events occurred in Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo between 1821–1824.

German Brazilians

German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Hunsrik: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilians of full or partial German ancestry.

German Brazilian Society of Firefighters Volunteers in State of Paraná – 1897
German Diaspora (c. 1930)
Nova Petrópolis, settled by Germans in 1858
Gramado is a touristic Italo-Germanic city in Rio Grande do Sul
Many cities in Porto Alegre's Metropolitan Area were founded by Germans, such as São Leopoldo, Novo Hamburgo, Nova Hartz, Dois Irmãos (Baumschneis), Ivoti (Berghanschneis) and Sapiranga (Leoner-Hof)
Jacobina Mentz Maurer, the leader of the Muckers
By 2002 City Hall research concluded that 45% of the people from Jaraguá do Sul descended from Germans. The other main groups were Italians (25%), Poles (6%), and Hungarians (3%); 21% had other ancestry.
A Lutheran church in Schroeder, Santa Catarina
Blumenau and its German influence: forty cities were created from the former colony of Blumenau, including the actual city
German communities (pink) in Southern Brazil in 1905
Children make the Nazi version of the Roman salute in Presidente Bernardes, São Paulo (c. 1935)
Egon Albrecht-Lemke was a German Luftwaffe ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II. Albrecht was born in Curitiba, Brazil.
The Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Lutheran University of Brazil, also known as Ulbra) in Canoas
Brahma's Old Building in Porto Alegre
Kuchen, a common German dessert in southern Brazil called "cuca"
A match between Coritiba and Ceará in the 2007 Campeonato Brasileiro
Students and teachers at a German school in Blumenau in 1866
Thomas Mann, the German Nobel Prize winner is son of the German Brazilian Júlia da Silva Bruhns
Espírito Santo's municipalities in which East Pomeranian is co-official.

The majority settled in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

First Brazilian Republic

The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha (, "Old Republic"), officially the Republic of the United States of Brazil, refers to the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930.

Brazil at its largest territorial extent, including Acre
The Proclamation of the Republic, by Benedito Calixto.
Brazil at its largest territorial extent, including Acre
First Brazilian flag after empire's fall, created by Ruy Barbosa, used between November 15th and 19th of 1889.
President Venceslau Brás declares war on the Central Powers, October 1917.
President Artur Bernardes (1922-1926) and ministers of state, 1922. National Archives of Brazil.

The most powerful of such landholders were the coffee industry of São Paulo and the dairy industry of Minas Gerais.

Federative units of Brazil

The federative units of Brazil (unidades federativas do Brasil) are subnational entities with a certain degree of autonomy (self-government, self-regulation and self-collection) and endowed with their own government and constitution, which together form the Federative Republic of Brazil.

The States of Brazil, their respective flags, their state capitals, and their largest cities.
1534 Captaincies of Brazil{{efn|This map names the eastern captaincy of Maranhão as Piauí, and does not show the captaincy of the island of São João.}}
1709–1720/1761–1779 Expansion and mergers{{efn|This anachronistic map shows the captaincy of São Paulo and Minas de Ouro from its foundation in 1709 to its first split in 1720, and the captaincies of Bahia and Pernambuco from the last merger with their surrounding captaincies in 1761 to their first following split in 1779. The captaincy of Rio Grande de São Pedro was subordinated to Rio de Janeiro from its foundation in 1760 to 1807. The captaincies of Maranhão and Grão-Pará remained unchanged during this whole period.}}
1822 Imperial provinces
1889 States at the start of the republic{{efn|This map shows the entire future territory of Guaporé and state of Rondônia as part of Mato Grosso, but its northwest portion was part of Amazonas.<ref>Map of Brazil, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, November 1940. {{in lang|pt}}</ref>}}
1943 Border territories
1988 Current states

Some changes were made to suit domestic politics (transferring the Triângulo Mineiro from Goiás to Minas Gerais, transferring the south bank of the São Francisco River from Pernambuco to Minas Gerais and later to Bahia, separating the capital city of Rio de Janeiro as a Neutral Municipality outside of any province, splitting Amazonas from Pará, and splitting Paraná from São Paulo), as well as international border adjustments resulting from diplomatic settlement of territorial disputes.


Campinas in 1878 during the Empire of Brazil.
Maps of railways in Campinas in 1929
View of Campinas at dusk.
View of Campinas during a storm.
"Coronel Quirino" Street in the upper-class residential area of the Cambuí.
Luxury condos at Cambuí, a wealthy neighbourhood of Campinas.
Campinas Brazil Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located in the city.
Administrative micro-region of Campinas. The outlying municipality names in red are also part of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas.
Metropolitan Region of Campinas.
Parque Dom Pedro is the largest mall in Latin America.
Royal Palm Convention Center and Resort.
Cargo Terminal of Viracopos International Airport.
Castro Mendes theater
Swimming in the Tennis Club of Campinas (TCC).
Old tramway in operation at Parque Portugal (also known as Parque Taquaral)
Brinco de Ouro Stadium at night.
Moisés Lucarelli Stadium.
Jequitibás Palace, Campinas City Hall.
Municipal Chamber of Campinas.
Dom Pedro I motorway, part of Campinas Beltway.
Viracopos International Airport is located in Campinas.
Bus Terminal.
Campinas railway station.
Typical buildings at Unicamp (University of Campinas).
Brazilian Army Preparatory School of Cadets.
The National Synchrotron Light Laboratory

Campinas (, Plains or Meadows ) is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region.

Vargas Era

Period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was governed by President Getúlio Vargas.

Getúlio Vargas after the 1930 revolution, which began the Vargas Era.
Vargas (center) during commemorations to mark the 50th anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 15 November 1939.
Ten cruzeiro banknote, featuring a portrait of President Vargas.
Brazilian propaganda announcing a declaration of war on the Axis powers, 10 November 1943.
Carmen Miranda was a symbol of the "Good Neighbor Policy", which consisted of a closer relationship with the United States to Latin America.

Federal intervention in state governments increased and the political landscape was altered by suppressing the traditional oligarchies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais states.

Santos, São Paulo

Treemap showing the market share of exports, by product, for the municipality of Santos, São Paulo in 2014 generated by DataViva
View of Downtown Santos from Serrat Mountain

Santos (, Saints) is a municipality in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, founded in 1546 by the Portuguese nobleman Brás Cubas.

São José dos Campos

Inauguration of the General Motors Factory in São José dos Campos by President Juscelino Kubitschek, 1959.
Library of ITA, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Tamoios Highway
São José dos Campos Airport
Embraer Aircraft: the third largest aircraft manufacturer in the world, the company is headquartered at São José dos Campos
Treemap showing the market share of exports, by product, for the city of São José Dos Campos in 2014 generated by DataViva

São José dos Campos (, meaning Saint Joseph of the Fields) is a major city and the seat of the municipality of the same name in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.