S-Video

A/VS videoS-Video outsVideoY/C
S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i.wikipedia
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Composite video

compositeCVBScomposite video signal
By separating the black-and-white and coloring signals, it achieves better image quality than composite video, but has lower color resolution than component video.
Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video (two channels) and the even higher-quality component video (three or more channels).

RGB color model

RGBRGBC-IRred, green, and blue
The image is originally captured in RGB form and then processed into three signals known as YPbPr.
Early personal computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as those from Apple, and Commodore's Commodore VIC-20, used composite video whereas the Commodore 64 and the Atari family used S-Video derivatives.

Component video

componentRGBRGBHV
Compared with component video, which carries the identical luminance signal but separates the color-difference signals into Cb/Pb and Cr/Pr, the color resolution of S-Video is limited by the modulation on a subcarrier frequency of 3.57 to 4.43 megahertz, depending on the standard.
S-Video, RGB and [[YPbPr|]] signals comprise two or more separate signals, and thus are all component-video signals.

SCART

PéritelRGB SCARTSCART RGB
In many European countries, S-Video was less common because of the dominance of SCART connectors, which are present on most existing televisions.
The standard was extended at the end of the 1980s to support the new S-Video signals.

YPbPr

YP B P R componentcomponent video
By separating the black-and-white and coloring signals, it achieves better image quality than composite video, but has lower color resolution than component video. The image is originally captured in RGB form and then processed into three signals known as YPbPr.
S-Video and composite video mix the signals together by means of electronic multiplexing.

Subcarrier

subcarrierssub-carrierFM stereo subcarrier
Compared with component video, which carries the identical luminance signal but separates the color-difference signals into Cb/Pb and Cr/Pr, the color resolution of S-Video is limited by the modulation on a subcarrier frequency of 3.57 to 4.43 megahertz, depending on the standard.
In wired video connections, composite video retains the integrated subcarrier signal structure found in the transmitted baseband signal, while S-Video places the chrominance and luminance signals on separate wires to eliminate subcarrier crosstalk and enhance the signal bandwidth and strength (picture sharpness and brightness).

Commodore 64

C6464Commodore
The Commodore 64 released in 1982 also offers separate chroma and luma signals using a different connector.
Unlike the IIe, the C64's NTSC output capability also included separate luminance/chroma signal output equivalent to (and electrically compatible with) S-Video, for connection to the Commodore 1702 monitor, providing even better video quality than a composite signal.

Atari 8-bit family

Atari 8-bitAtari 800Atari 400
The Atari 800 introduced separate Chroma/Luma output in late 1979.
Colleen included user-accessible expansion slots for RAM and ROM, two 8 KB ROM cartridge slots, RF and monitor output (including two pins for separate luma and chroma, allowing a complete S-Video output) and a full keyboard.

SECAM

SÉCAMCIS-SECAMSECAM L
Carrying the color information as one signal means that the color has to be encoded in some way, typically in accord with NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, depending on the applicable local standard.
Dot crawl patterns can be completely removed by connecting the display to the signal source through a cable or signal format different from composite video (yellow RCA cable) or a coaxial cable, such as S-Video, which carries the chroma signal in a separate band all its own, leaving the luma to use its entire band, including the usually empty parts when they are needed.

Mini-DIN connector

mini-DIN9-pin Mini-DINMini-DIN-8
The four-pin mini-DIN connector is the most common of several S-Video connector types.

NTSC

analogNTSC-M30p
Carrying the color information as one signal means that the color has to be encoded in some way, typically in accord with NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, depending on the applicable local standard.
The use of NTSC coded color in S-Video systems completely eliminates the phase distortions.

Apple Desktop Bus

ADBADB port
The same mini-DIN connector is used in the Apple Desktop Bus for Macintosh computers and the two cable types can be interchanged.
A suitable connector was found in the form of the 4-pin mini-DIN connector, which is also used for S-Video.

Patch panel

patch baypatchbayjackfields
Other connector variants include seven-pin locking "dub" connectors used on many professional S-VHS machines, and dual "Y" and "C" BNC connectors, often used for S-Video patch panels.
For example, an S-Video matrix routing switcher with the same capability (8×8) as a 16-point S-Video patch panel (8 patch cables connects 8 inputs and 8 outputs) may cost ten times more, though it would probably have more capabilities.

Audio and video interfaces and connectors

Audio and video connectorAV connectorA/V
VIVO on these graphics cards typically supports Composite, S-Video, and Component as outputs, and composite and S-Video as inputs.

Video-in video-out

VIVOVideo In Video Out (VIVO)Video In Video Out
VIVO on these graphics cards typically supports composite, component, and S-Video as outputs, and composite and S-Video as inputs.

RCA connector

RCARCA jackphono
Early Y/C video monitors often used phono (RCA connector) that were switchable between Y/C and composite video input.
Although mini-DIN connectors are used for S-Video connections, composite video, component video, and analog audio (mono or stereo) all use RCA connectors unless the signals are sent via SCART.

Composite monitor

composite video monitor
With a whole market full of all sorts of solutions to convert composite (or its related standard S-video) to all sorts of other video transmission standards, it has even offered opportunities to repurpose non-composite monitors for composite video input, in which composite monitors themselves have also been repurposed for other applications of their own.

Standard-definition television

SDTVstandard definitionSD
S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i.

480i

480i60525 line525 lines
S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i.

576i

625-line720x576analogue
S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i.

Analog television

analoganalogueanalogue television
Standard analog television signals go through several processing steps on their way to being broadcast, each of which discards information and lowers the quality of the resulting images.

Luma (video)

lumaluminanceluminance signal
The first of these signals is called Y, which is created from all three original signals based on a formula that produces an overall brightness of the image, or luma.

Black and white

black-and-whiteblack and white filmblack & white
This signal closely matches a traditional black and white television signal and the Y/C method of encoding was key to offering backward compatibility.

Backward compatibility

backward compatiblebackward-compatiblebackwards compatible
This signal closely matches a traditional black and white television signal and the Y/C method of encoding was key to offering backward compatibility.