SQL

Structured Query LanguageSQL DatabasesWikibook SQLGROUP BYkeywordSQL standardsubquery ANSI SQLdatabase query
SQL ( S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).wikipedia
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Relational algebra

joinrelational logicθ''-join
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
The main application of relational algebra is providing a theoretical foundation for relational databases, particularly query languages for such databases, chief among which is SQL.

Domain-specific language

domain specific languagedomain-specificdomain-specific programming language
SQL ( S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
A computer language like SQL presents an interesting case: it can be deemed a domain-specific language because it is specific to a specific domain (in SQL's case, accessing and managing relational databases), and is often called from another application, but SQL has more keywords and functions than many scripting languages, and is often thought of as a language in its own right, perhaps because of the prevalence of database manipulation in programming and the amount of mastery required to be an expert in the language.

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce after learning about the relational model from Ted Codd in the early 1970s.
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).

Relational model

relationalrelational data modelrelationships
SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational model.
Most relational databases use the SQL data definition and query language; these systems implement what can be regarded as an engineering approximation to the relational model.

Data manipulation language

DMLData Manipulation Language (DML)manipulation
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
A DML is often a sublanguage of a broader database language such as SQL, with the DML comprising some of the operators in the language.

Data control language

DCLGRANT
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
In particular, it is a component of Structured Query Language (SQL).

Tuple relational calculus

tuple calculus
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
It formed the inspiration for the database-query languages QUEL and SQL, of which the latter, although far less faithful to the original relational model and calculus, is now the de facto standard database-query language; a dialect of SQL is used by nearly every relational-database-management system.

Relational data stream management system

SQL ( S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
A relational data stream management system (RDSMS) is a distributed, in-memory data stream management system (DSMS) that is designed to use standards-compliant SQL queries to process unstructured and structured data streams in real-time.

Data definition language

DDLdata definition DDL
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
Later it was used to refer to a subset of Structured Query Language (SQL) for declaring tables, columns, data types and constraints.

Raymond F. Boyce

Raymond Boyce
SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce after learning about the relational model from Ted Codd in the early 1970s.
He is best known for his work co-developing the SQL database language and Boyce-Codd normal form.

Query language

querydatabase languagedatabase query language
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
FQL enables you to use a SQL-style interface to query the data exposed by the Graph API. It provides advanced features not available in the Graph API.

Oracle Corporation

OracleNYSE: ORCLOracle Corp.
In the late 1970s, Relational Software, Inc. (now Oracle Corporation) saw the potential of the concepts described by Codd, Chamberlin, and Boyce, and developed their own SQL-based RDBMS with aspirations of selling it to the U.S. Navy, Central Intelligence Agency, and other U.S. government agencies.
1979: offers the first commercial SQL RDBMS

IBM Db2 Family

DB2IBM DB2pureQuery
After testing SQL at customer test sites to determine the usefulness and practicality of the system, IBM began developing commercial products based on their System R prototype including System/38, SQL/DS, and DB2, which were commercially available in 1979, 1981, and 1983, respectively.
A key development of the System R project was SQL. To apply the relational model, Codd needed a relational-database language he named DSL/Alpha.

Relational database

relational databasesrelationaldatabase constraints
SQL is designed for a specific purpose: to query data contained in a relational database.
Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) for querying and maintaining the database.

IBM System R

System RIBM's System R
This version, initially called SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language), was designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM's original quasi-relational database management system, System R, which a group at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory had developed during the 1970s.
System R was a seminal project: it was the first implementation of SQL, which has since become the standard relational data query language.

SQL/JRT

SQL Routines and Types Using the Java Programming Language
The SQL standard defines SQL/JRT extensions (SQL Routines and Types for the Java Programming Language) to support Java code in SQL databases.
SQL/JRT, or SQL Routines and Types for the Java Programming Language, is an extension to the SQL standard first published as ISO/IEC 9075-13:2002 (part 13 of SQL:1999).

IBM SQL/DS

SQL/DSSQL
After testing SQL at customer test sites to determine the usefulness and practicality of the system, IBM began developing commercial products based on their System R prototype including System/38, SQL/DS, and DB2, which were commercially available in 1979, 1981, and 1983, respectively.
It implemented the SQL database-query language.

PostgreSQL

PostgresJSONBlibpq
SQL Server 2005 uses the SQLCLR (SQL Server Common Language Runtime) to host managed .NET assemblies in the database, while prior versions of SQL Server were restricted to unmanaged extended stored procedures primarily written in C. PostgreSQL lets users write functions in a wide variety of languages—including Perl, Python, Tcl, JavaScript (PL/V8) and C. Particular exceptions are PostgreSQL and Mimer SQL which strive for standards compliance, though PostgreSQL does not adhere to the standard in how folding of unquoted names is done.
It is abbreviated as Postgres because of ubiquitous support for the SQL standard among (at least early version of) most relational databases.

SQL/PSM

Persistent Stored Modules
ISO/IEC 9075-4:2016 Part 4: Persistent stored modules (SQL/PSM). It standardizes procedural extensions for SQL, including flow of control, condition handling, statement condition signals and resignals, cursors and local variables, and assignment of expressions to variables and parameters. In addition, SQL/PSM formalizes declaration and maintenance of persistent database language routines (e.g., "stored procedures"). This part of the standard consists solely of optional features.
SQL/PSM (SQL/Persistent Stored Modules) is an ISO standard mainly defining an extension of SQL with a procedural language for use in stored procedures.

Firebird (database server)

FirebirdFirebird 2.1Firebird database
Firebird is an open-source SQL relational database management system that "runs on Linux, Microsoft Windows, macOS and several Unix platforms".

Sublanguage

Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).
SQL (Structured Query Language) statements are classified in various ways, which can be grouped into sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL), a data definition language (DDL), a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML).

Mimer SQL

Particular exceptions are PostgreSQL and Mimer SQL which strive for standards compliance, though PostgreSQL does not adhere to the standard in how folding of unquoted names is done.
Mimer SQL is an SQL-based relational database management system produced by the Swedish company Mimer Information Technology AB (Mimer AB), formerly known as Upright Database Technology AB.

MySQL

M'''ySQLMySQL 4.1MySQL 4.x
Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, and "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language.

Declarative programming

declarativedeclarative languagedeclarative programming language
Although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language (4GL), it also includes procedural elements.
Common declarative languages include those of database query languages (e.g., SQL, XQuery), regular expressions, logic programming, functional programming, and configuration management systems.

Oracle Database

OracleOracle 10gOracle 8i
In June 1979, Relational Software, Inc. introduced the first commercially available implementation of SQL, Oracle V2 (Version2) for VAX computers.
SQL*Plus, a program that allows users to interact with Oracle database(s) via SQL and PL/SQL commands on a command-line. Compare iSQL*Plus.