SRAAM

Hawker Siddeley SRAAMTaildog/SRAAM
The Short Range Air-to-Air Missile, or SRAAM for short, initially known as Taildog, was an experimental British infrared homing ("heat seeking") air-to-air missile, developed between 1968 and 1980 by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics.wikipedia
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AIM-9 Sidewinder

SidewinderAIM-9AIM-9X
Although initially intended to replace the AIM-9 Sidewinder, it was downgraded to a technology demonstrator program in 1974. These limitations were made clear during the Vietnam War, when early missiles like the AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-9 Sidewinder had success rates on the order of 9 and 14%, respectively.
Its adaptability has kept it in service over newer designs like the AIM-95 Agile and SRAAM that were intended to replace it.

ASRAAM

AIM-132 ASRAAMAIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air MissileMBDA AIM-132 ASRAAM
In 1980, the knowledge gained from the SRAAM project was used in the ASRAAM missile project.
One attempt to improve matters was made starting in the late 1960s by the Hawker Siddeley "Taildog", initially a private project but later officially supported as SRAAM.

Infrared homing

heat-seekingheat-seeking missileinfrared seeker
The Short Range Air-to-Air Missile, or SRAAM for short, initially known as Taildog, was an experimental British infrared homing ("heat seeking") air-to-air missile, developed between 1968 and 1980 by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics.
In the UK this led to the SRAAM project, which was ultimately the victim of continually changing requirements.

Hawker Siddeley

Hawker Siddeley AviationHawker Siddeley GroupHawker Siddeley Dynamics
The Short Range Air-to-Air Missile, or SRAAM for short, initially known as Taildog, was an experimental British infrared homing ("heat seeking") air-to-air missile, developed between 1968 and 1980 by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics.

Air-to-air missile

air-to-airair-to-air missilesAAM
The Short Range Air-to-Air Missile, or SRAAM for short, initially known as Taildog, was an experimental British infrared homing ("heat seeking") air-to-air missile, developed between 1968 and 1980 by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics.

AIM-95 Agile

Hawker was not the only one to come up with this basic concept; around the same time, the US Navy and Air Force both began similar programs for similar reasons, ultimately combining their efforts in the AIM-95 Agile project.

Royal Air Force Museum Cosford

RAF Museum CosfordRAF MuseumCosford
Surviving artefacts include a mockup of the missile in the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford, and a launcher at the Bristol Aero Collection.

Dogfight

dog fightair-to-air combatair-to-air
It was designed to be very manoevrable for use at short range in a dogfight situation.

Field of view

FOVfields of viewwide-field
The other was that the seeker had a limited field of view (FOV), meaning it could only see the target if it was in front of the missile.

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
These limitations were made clear during the Vietnam War, when early missiles like the AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-9 Sidewinder had success rates on the order of 9 and 14%, respectively.

AIM-4 Falcon

FalconHughes FalconFalcon missile
These limitations were made clear during the Vietnam War, when early missiles like the AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-9 Sidewinder had success rates on the order of 9 and 14%, respectively.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Much of this was due to the fact that pilots had been trained to approach using radar or ground-controlled interception, which placed the enemy aircraft somewhere in front of them, but not necessarily flying in the same direction.

Ground-controlled interception

GCIground control interceptGround-Control Intercept
Much of this was due to the fact that pilots had been trained to approach using radar or ground-controlled interception, which placed the enemy aircraft somewhere in front of them, but not necessarily flying in the same direction.

Radar lock-on

lock-onmissile lock-onlock on
In these situations, the seeker might see the target's engine and send the growling signal that indicated lock-on, but would fail to track when fired because the target would move out of the FOV in the time while the missile was flying off the mounting rail.

United States Navy

U.S. NavyUS NavyNavy
Faced with these dismal results, the US Navy and then US Air Force introduced new training syllabuses that placed much more emphasis on pre-shot maneuvering, so the launch aircraft would be both behind the target and flying in the same general direction.

United States Air Force

U.S. Air ForceAir ForceUSAF
Faced with these dismal results, the US Navy and then US Air Force introduced new training syllabuses that placed much more emphasis on pre-shot maneuvering, so the launch aircraft would be both behind the target and flying in the same general direction.

Autocannon

cannonautomatic cannonautocannons
To provide some capability in these situations, autocannons were hastily added to those fighters that lacked them.

De Havilland Firestreak

FirestreakBlue JayBlue Vesta
This goal was a short-range, low-cost missile that would fill the gap between guns and then-current missiles like Firestreak and Red Top.

Red Top (missile)

Red TopHawker Siddeley Red TopRed Top missile
This goal was a short-range, low-cost missile that would fill the gap between guns and then-current missiles like Firestreak and Red Top.

Thrust vectoring

vectored thrustthrust vector controlthrust vector
Taildog was highly manoeuvrable through the use of thrust vectoring for all flight control.

Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

Ministry of DefenceMoDUK Ministry of Defence
In 1970 the British Ministry of Defence came to the conclusion that a better short-range missile was needed, and drew up a request for proposals, AST 1218.

Request for proposal

RFPrequest for proposalsrequests for proposal
In 1970 the British Ministry of Defence came to the conclusion that a better short-range missile was needed, and drew up a request for proposals, AST 1218.

Air Staff (United Kingdom)

Air StaffAir Staff Target 412AST 1218
In 1970 the British Ministry of Defence came to the conclusion that a better short-range missile was needed, and drew up a request for proposals, AST 1218.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

F-4 Phantom IIF-4 PhantomF-4
AST 1218 also included the requirement that the missile could be carried by aircraft that lacked the target acquisition systems of the Phantom and Lightning.

English Electric Lightning

LightningLightningsBAC Lightning
AST 1218 also included the requirement that the missile could be carried by aircraft that lacked the target acquisition systems of the Phantom and Lightning.