STIR/SHAKEN

SHAKEN/STIR
STIR/SHAKEN, or SHAKEN/STIR, is a suite of protocols and procedures intended to combat caller ID spoofing on public telephone networks.wikipedia
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Caller ID spoofing

spoofspoofedCaller ID
STIR/SHAKEN, or SHAKEN/STIR, is a suite of protocols and procedures intended to combat caller ID spoofing on public telephone networks.
Starting in mid-2017, and with intended culmination in 2019, the FCC pushed forward Caller ID certification implemented via a methodology of STIR/SHAKEN.

Caller ID

caller line identificationCaller-IDCalling Line Identification
This may be in the form of additional information in the CNAM information of caller ID indicating the number has been spoofed, but the details have not been finalized.
Starting in mid-2017, and with intended culmination in 2019, the FCC pushed forward Caller ID certification implemented via a methodology of SHAKEN/STIR.

Robocall

robocallsrobo-callrobocalling
Caller ID spoofing is used by robocallers to mask their identity or to make it appear the call is from a legitimate source, often a nearby phone number with the same area code and exchange, or from well-known agencies like the Internal Revenue Service or Ontario Provincial Police.

Telephone numbering plan

Area codeTelephone codearea codes
Caller ID spoofing is used by robocallers to mask their identity or to make it appear the call is from a legitimate source, often a nearby phone number with the same area code and exchange, or from well-known agencies like the Internal Revenue Service or Ontario Provincial Police.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
Caller ID spoofing is used by robocallers to mask their identity or to make it appear the call is from a legitimate source, often a nearby phone number with the same area code and exchange, or from well-known agencies like the Internal Revenue Service or Ontario Provincial Police.

Internal Revenue Service

IRSinternal revenueBureau of Internal Revenue
Caller ID spoofing is used by robocallers to mask their identity or to make it appear the call is from a legitimate source, often a nearby phone number with the same area code and exchange, or from well-known agencies like the Internal Revenue Service or Ontario Provincial Police.

Ontario Provincial Police

OPPO.P.P.Ontario Provincial Police (OPP)
Caller ID spoofing is used by robocallers to mask their identity or to make it appear the call is from a legitimate source, often a nearby phone number with the same area code and exchange, or from well-known agencies like the Internal Revenue Service or Ontario Provincial Police.

Voice over IP

VoIPVoice over Internet Protocolvoice-over-IP
This sort of spoofing is common for calls originating from voice-over-IP (VOIP) systems, which can be located anywhere in the world. The introduction of voice-over-IP (VOIP) systems allowed users to place calls to other users directly through the internet without ever using the public telephone network.

Internet Engineering Task Force

IETFInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF)IETF Working Group
STIR, short for Secure Telephony Identity Revisited, is being defined by a Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force.

Public key certificate

digital certificatecertificatedigital certificates
It works by adding a digital certificate to the Session Initiation Protocol information used to initiate and route calls in VOIP systems.

Session Initiation Protocol

SIPSession Initiation Protocol (SIP)SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
It works by adding a digital certificate to the Session Initiation Protocol information used to initiate and route calls in VOIP systems.

Public-key cryptography

public keypublic key cryptographyprivate key
VOIP software on the receiving end can check the authenticity of the message by decrypting STIR using the provider's public key.

Mobile phone

cell phonemobile phonesmobile
For non-VOIP systems, like cell phones and landlines, call routing information is carried by SS7.

Landline

Fixed linefixed-lineland line
For non-VOIP systems, like cell phones and landlines, call routing information is carried by SS7.

Signalling System No. 7

SS7Signaling System 7Signalling System 7
For non-VOIP systems, like cell phones and landlines, call routing information is carried by SS7.

Public switched telephone network

PSTNpublic telephone networktelephone network
STIR/SHAKEN, or SHAKEN/STIR, is a suite of protocols and procedures intended to combat caller ID spoofing on public telephone networks.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
, SHAKEN/STIR is a major ongoing effort in the United States, which is suffering an "epidemic" of robocalls. The system was widespread in the United States and Canada by the mid-1990s, and spread to most other countries by the end of the decade.

Theodore Paraskevakos

Theodore George “Ted” ParaskevakosTed ParaskevakosTheodore George "Ted" Paraskevakos
The idea of sending the phone number to the customer for identification purposes dates to 1968, when Ted Paraskevakos introduced the idea of modem-like devices that would send and receive the information over normal voice lines.

Bell 202 modem

Bell 202Bell 202 tones
It sent a small burst of information using the 1200 bit/s Bell 202 modulation in the time between the first and second rings.

Verizon Communications

VerizonBell AtlanticGTE
The concept was developed through the 1970s and had its first public trial with Bell Atlantic in 1984 and a follow-up in 1987.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The system was widespread in the United States and Canada by the mid-1990s, and spread to most other countries by the end of the decade.

Telemarketing

telemarketertelemarketerstelesales
It soon became an indispensable system allowing customers to screen calls from telemarketers.

Federal Trade Commission

FTCU.S. Federal Trade CommissionUnited States Federal Trade Commission
This became so common that the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was given the mandate to sue companies that provided false caller ID information.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
The introduction of voice-over-IP (VOIP) systems allowed users to place calls to other users directly through the internet without ever using the public telephone network.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTP8BITMIMEemail protocol
SIP borrowed from existing protocols, including the use of simple headers like "From:" in a format similar to the SMTP email system.