Saar Protectorate

SaarSaarlandSaar (protectorate)Saar areaa protectoratedispute over SaarlandprotectorateSaarland ProtectorateCoat of arms of the Saar under French protectorateFrench occupied Saarland
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.wikipedia
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West Germany

West GermanFederal Republic of GermanyGermany
On rejoining West Germany in 1957, it became the smallest "area state" (Bundesland), the Saarland, not counting the "city states" (Stadtstaaten) of Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen. On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to join West Germany, as provided by its Grundgesetz constitution art.
Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and a divided Berlin.

Protectorate

British Protectorateprotectionprotectorates
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.
*Saar Protectorate (1947–1956), not colonial or amical, but a former part of Germany that would by referendum return to it, in fact a re-edition of a former League of Nations mandate.

Saarland

SaarSaar regionSaar area
On rejoining West Germany in 1957, it became the smallest "area state" (Bundesland), the Saarland, not counting the "city states" (Stadtstaaten) of Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen. On 15 December 1947 the Saar was constituted by its constitution as the Saarland, with an elected government under the control of the French high commissioner Gilbert Grandval.
Following World War II, the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany organized the territory as the Saar Protectorate from 1947, becoming a protectorate of France, and between 1950 and 1956 was a member of the Council of Europe.

Allied-occupied Germany

GermanyBritish occupation zoneoccupied Germany
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.
The French Zone of Occupation included the Saargebiet, which was disentangled from it on 16 February 1946.

Ruhr

Ruhr areaRuhrgebietRuhr region
Around 1900, the region formed the third-largest area of coal, iron, and steel industry in Germany (after the Ruhr Area and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin).
The nearby Saar region, containing much of Germany's remaining coal deposits, was handed over to economic administration by France as a protectorate in 1947 and did not politically return to Germany until January 1957, with economic reintegration occurring two years later.

Rhineland-Palatinate

Rheinland-PfalzRhineland PalatinatePalatinate
By further territorial redeployments between the Saar Protectorate, constituted in early 1947, and neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate (a new state established on 30 August 1946 in the French zone), 61 municipalities returned to Germany, while 13 other municipalities were ceded to the Saar Protectorate between 8 June 1947 and 1949, followed by one further Palatine municipality incorporated into the Saar in the latter year.
Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, and shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957.

Gilbert Grandval

Gilbert Yves Édmond Grandval
On 15 December 1947 the Saar was constituted by its constitution as the Saarland, with an elected government under the control of the French high commissioner Gilbert Grandval.
Gilbert Grandval (born Gilbert Hirsch, subsequently Gilbert Hirsch-Ollendorff: 12 February 1904 – 29 November 1981) was a French Resistance activist who went on to become the military governor of the Saar Protectorate in 1945.

Saar franc

While only French franc banknotes circulated from 1954 on, Saar franc coins, designed similar to French coins, were issued too.
The Saar franc was the French franc (Franken) used as the official currency of the Saar during the times that the Saar territory was economically split off from Germany, in 1920–1935 as the Territory of the Saar Basin, in 1947–1957 as the Saar Protectorate and 1957–1959 as the state of Saarland in West Germany.

1955 Saar Statute referendum

referendumSaar Statute referendum1955
In the Paris Agreements of 23 October 1954, France offered to establish an independent "Saarland", under the auspices of the Western European Union (WEU), but a referendum held on 23 October 1955 rejected this plan by 67.7% to 32.3% (out of a 96.5% turnout: 423,434 against, 201,975 for) despite the public support of West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer for the plan.
A referendum on the Saar statute was held in the Saar Protectorate on 23 October 1955.

Social Democratic Party of Saarland

SPS
The Social Democratic Party of Saarland (Sozialdemokratische Partei des Saarlands, abbreviated SPS) was a political party existing between 1946 and 1956 in the Saar Protectorate.

Reichsmark

RMReichsmarksMarks
On 16 July 1947 the Saar mark replaced the Reichsmark as legal tender in the Saar Protectorate, followed by the integration of the Saar into the French currency area on November 15 the same year.
In 1947 a local currency (the Saar Mark, later replaced with the Saar Franc) was introduced in the Saar.

Jean Monnet

MonnetJean Monnet Chair in European LawJean-Monnet
In the face of U.S. and Soviet domination of Europe the French government took a historic step in deciding that the only viable political model for the future lay in European integration; this resulted in the Schuman Declaration in 1950, a plan drafted for the most part by Jean Monnet.
Following World War II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining areas, the Ruhr and the Saar.

European Coal and Steel Community

ECSCCoal and Steel CommunityEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
As a first step France and Germany were to agree to pool their coal and steel resources (see European Coal and Steel Community).
As Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Schuman was instrumental in turning French policy away from the Gaullist policy of permanent occupation or control of parts of German territory such as the Ruhr or the Saar.

Saar mark

marks
On 16 July 1947 the Saar mark replaced the Reichsmark as legal tender in the Saar Protectorate, followed by the integration of the Saar into the French currency area on November 15 the same year.
The Saar Mark was a currency issued on 16 June 1947 by the French government for use in Saar.

Saar at the 1952 Summer Olympics

Saarcompeted independently in the Summer Olympic games in 1952Nationales Olympisches Komitee des Saarlandes
The Saar competed in the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, and the Saarland national football team participated in the qualifying section of the 1954 FIFA World Cup, but failed to qualify after coming second to the West German team, but ahead of Norway.
The National Olympic Committee (NOC) of the Saarland was founded in the spring of 1950 in the Saar Protectorate, which existed from 1947 to 1956 (German state of Saarland since), a region of Western Germany that was occupied in 1945 by France.

Johannes Hoffmann (CVP)

Johannes Hoffmann
A founding member and chairman of the Christian People's Party (German: Christliche Volkspartei or CVP), Hoffman served as Minister-President of the French Saar Protectorate from 1947 to 1955.

Monnet Plan

modernisation and reconstruction Plan
Under the Monnet Plan France attempted to gain economic control of the German industrial areas in its assigned zones, especially areas with large coal and mineral deposits, such as the Ruhr (in the British zone) and the Saar.
In 1947 France detached the coal-rich Saar area from Germany and turned it into the Saar Protectorate under French economic control.

International Authority for the Ruhr

The Ruhr AgreementIARRuhr Agreement
Similar attempts to gain control of, or permanently internationalise, the Ruhr (see International Authority for the Ruhr) were abandoned in 1951, when France rejected the traditional aims of European hegemony predicated upon European enmity.
In 1947 France removed the Saar from Germany and turned it into a protectorate under French economic control.

Saar Treaty

accededLuxembourg AgreementsSaar Agreement.
On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to join West Germany, as provided by its Grundgesetz constitution art.
The Saar Treaty, or Treaty of Luxembourg (German: Vertrag von Luxemburg, French: accords de Luxembourg) is an agreement between West Germany and France concerning the return of the Saar Protectorate to West Germany.

Saarland national football team

SaarlandSaarland national teamSaar
The Saar competed in the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, and the Saarland national football team participated in the qualifying section of the 1954 FIFA World Cup, but failed to qualify after coming second to the West German team, but ahead of Norway.
The Saarland national football team (Saarländische Fußballnationalmannschaft) was the association football team representing Saarland from 1950 to 1956 during the French occupation following World War II.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
In 1920 Britain and France established for the League of Nations mandate of the Saar a nominally independent occupation government was set up to control an area as to the greater part carved out of the Prussian Rhine Province and supplemented by two Bavarian districts (Homburg and St. Ingbert), ceded from the Palatinate.
The Saar region, which had been administered by the French as a protectorate separate from the rest of Western Germany, was admitted to the Federal Republic of Germany as a separate state in 1956 following a plebiscite.

Germany national football team

GermanyWest GermanyGerman national team
The Saar competed in the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, and the Saarland national football team participated in the qualifying section of the 1954 FIFA World Cup, but failed to qualify after coming second to the West German team, but ahead of Norway.
Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were also recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland (1950–1956) and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic (1952–1990).

Schuman Declaration

Schuman PlanSchumann Planfamous declaration
In the face of U.S. and Soviet domination of Europe the French government took a historic step in deciding that the only viable political model for the future lay in European integration; this resulted in the Schuman Declaration in 1950, a plan drafted for the most part by Jean Monnet.
Under the Monnet Plan of 1946–1950, designed to increase French steel production at the expense of Germany, France had absorbed the Saarland, a center for coal mining, from Germany and turned it into a protectorate.

Deutsche Mark

DMGerman markmarks
The treaty also stated that economic union with West Germany was to be completed by 1960, with the exact date of the replacement of the Saar and French franc by the Deutsche Mark being kept a secret called "Day X" (Tag X).
The population in the Saar Protectorate rejected in a referendum the proposal to turn it into a "European territory".

Flag of Europe

European flagEU flagflag of the European Union
As a footnote to the creation of the European Union, the territorial dispute over control of the Saarland was one of the last between member states and led to the European flag being given a politically neutral ring of twelve stars rather than the originally proposed 15 (one of which was to represent a nominally independent Saar as a member of the Council of Europe).
West Germany objected to the fifteen-star design, as one of the members was Saar Protectorate, and to have its own star would imply sovereignty for the region.