Sabot (firearms)

Function of an APFSDS sabot red: propellant orange: long rod penetrator yellow: propellant gases green: sabot blue: gun barrel
American 120 mm M829A2 APFSDS shell.
Lead bullet being supported by a wooden cup sabot in a Delvigne gun.
Series of individual 1/1,000,000 second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and expanding cup sabot separation.
Cup sabot function
thumb|Sabot shell with cup sabot for an 1824 Paixhans gun.
Expanding cup sabot function
.30-06 cartridge with expanding cup sabot projectile.
Base sabot function
APDS-projectile with base sabot and "support ring" sabot.
Spindle sabot function
French OFL 120 F1 APFSDS long rod penetrator with "saddle-back" spindle sabot.
Ring sabot function.
Soviet 125 mm BM-15 long rod penetrator projectile with ring sabot.

Supportive device used in firearm/artillery ammunitions to fit/patch around a projectile, such as a bullet/slug or a flechette-like projectile , and keep it aligned in the center of the barrel when fired.

- Sabot (firearms)
Function of an APFSDS sabot red: propellant orange: long rod penetrator yellow: propellant gases green: sabot blue: gun barrel

12 related topics

Alpha

Shotgun slug

Shotgun slug

Heavy projectile made of lead, copper, or other material and fired from a shotgun.

Heavy projectile made of lead, copper, or other material and fired from a shotgun.

Shotgun slug
A 12 gauge Brenneke slug
A Remington 870 12 gauge with sighted cylinder bore barrel suitable for Foster slugs and buckshot
From the left, plumbata discarding sabot (No. 1); plumbata slugs (No. 2, No. 5); wad slug (No. 3), sabot slugs (No. 3, No. 4)

Many of these slugs are saboted sub-caliber projectiles, resulting in greatly improved external ballistics performance.

M829A2 cross-section

M829

[[File:M829.jpg|thumb|150px|

[[File:M829.jpg|thumb|150px|

M829A2 cross-section

The M829 is an American armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot (APFSDS) tank round.

French anti-tank round with its sabot

Kinetic energy penetrator

Type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour using a flechette-like, high-sectional density projectile.

Type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour using a flechette-like, high-sectional density projectile.

French anti-tank round with its sabot
A partly cut-away 30 × 173 mm APFSDS-T round

Firing a small-diameter projectile wrapped in a lightweight outer shell, called a sabot, raises the muzzle velocity.

Swedish "37/24 mm slpprj m/49" APDS projectile for the Bofors 37 mm anti-tank gun from 1949. 37/24 indicates full-calibre with sabot and sub-calibre without sabot — 37 /. Left object shows the projectile with sabot, central object shows projectile without sabot and the right object is the projectile's tungsten-core.

Armour-piercing discarding sabot

Type of spin-stabilized kinetic energy projectile for anti-armour warfare.

Type of spin-stabilized kinetic energy projectile for anti-armour warfare.

Swedish "37/24 mm slpprj m/49" APDS projectile for the Bofors 37 mm anti-tank gun from 1949. 37/24 indicates full-calibre with sabot and sub-calibre without sabot — 37 /. Left object shows the projectile with sabot, central object shows projectile without sabot and the right object is the projectile's tungsten-core.
A modern APFSDS-T projectile shortly after muzzle exit, just as the sabot petals are separating from the penetrator.
Diagram showing the operation of the discarding sabot on APDS-projectiles. This example uses a "spindle-sabot".

Each projectile consists of a sub-calibre round fitted with a sabot.

A US Navy sailor fires a Mk 18 Mod 1 carbine at a target.

Saboted light armor penetrator

Designed to penetrate armor more efficiently than standard armor-piercing ammunition.

Designed to penetrate armor more efficiently than standard armor-piercing ammunition.

A US Navy sailor fires a Mk 18 Mod 1 carbine at a target.

It uses a reduced caliber, heavy metal (tungsten) .30 inch diameter penetrator wrapped in a plastic sabot of .50 inch diameter, and the .308 SLAP round was a .223 inch diameter penetrator core within the .308 inch plastic sabot.

APFSDS at point of separation of sabot

Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot

Type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armor.

Type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armor.

APFSDS at point of separation of sabot
Modern 120 mm tank gun shells

Complicating matters, when foreign deployment of military forces or export sales markets are considered, a sabot designed specifically to launch a DU penetrator cannot simply be used to launch a substitute WHA penetrator, even of exactly the same manufactured geometry.

Represents how evidence is found in a shooting

External ballistics

Part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

Part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

Represents how evidence is found in a shooting
Typical trajectory graph for a M4 carbine and M16A2 rifle using identical M855 cartridges with identical projectiles. Though both trajectories have an identical 25 m near zero, the difference in muzzle velocity of the projectiles gradually causes a significant difference in trajectory and far zero. The 0 inch axis represents the line of sight or horizontal sighting plane.
Jacob Castro - Forensics Final Project (1)
Schlieren photo/Shadowgraph of the detached shock or bow shockwave around a bullet in supersonic flight, published by Ernst Mach in 1888.
G1 shape standard projectile. All measurements in calibers/diameters.
G7 shape standard projectile. All measurements in calibers/diameters.
Five bullets used in United States military loadings from left to right: M1903 bullet, M1906 ball, M1 ball, M2 ball used by Dr. Pejsa for the second reference drag curve, and M2 armor-piercing (AP) bullet
Left German 7.9 mm s.S. (FMJ) and right S.m.E. ammunition beside their boat-tailed projectiles with cannelures
The Magnus effect

Projectiles like arrows or arrow like sabots such as the M829 Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized, Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) achieve stability by forcing their center of pressure (CP) behind their center of Mass (CM) with tail surfaces. The CP behind the CM condition yields stable projectile flight, meaning the projectile will not overturn during flight through the atmosphere due to aerodynamic forces.

Bullet parts: 1 metal jacket, 2 lead core, 3 steel penetrator

Terminal ballistics

Sub-field of ballistics concerned with the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

Sub-field of ballistics concerned with the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

Bullet parts: 1 metal jacket, 2 lead core, 3 steel penetrator
.32 ACP full metal jacket, .32 S&W Long wadcutter, .380 ACP jacketed hollow point
Example photo of the over-penetration of a fragmenting projectile.
Wound ballistics for various Soviet cartridges
AK-47 7.62x39mm wound ballistics
AK-74 5.45x39mm wound ballistics
M16 5.56x45mm wound ballistics
M16A2 M855 5.56X45mm NATO wound ballistics

For larger, higher-velocity calibers, such as tank guns, hardness is of secondary importance to density, and are normally sub-caliber projectiles made from tungsten carbide, tungsten hard alloy or depleted uranium fired in a light aluminum or magnesium alloy (or carbon fibre in some cases) sabot.

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

Slug barrel

Shotgun barrel that is designed primarily to fire slugs instead of shot, and is usually rifled.

Shotgun barrel that is designed primarily to fire slugs instead of shot, and is usually rifled.

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

Bolt action and single shot break-open designs are particularly accurate, and with modern saboted slugs designed for use only with rifled barrels, the modern slug gun offers nearly the accuracy of a typical rifle, though at shorter ranges.

Mardi Gras papier-mâché masks, Haiti

Papier-mâché

Composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

Composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

Mardi Gras papier-mâché masks, Haiti
Papier-mâché Catrinas, traditional figures for day of the dead celebrations in Mexico
Papier-mâché with the strips method for the creation of a pig
Papier-mâché mask created with the pulp method
Detail of gilt papier-mâché as applied to an English picture frame
Building of a papier-mâché mask for the sculpture of Nichi Vendola, in the Carnival of Massafra
The Schenkl projectile, used in the American Civil War, used a papier-mâché sabot
Santi Guglielmo e Pellegrino in the Foggia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy)
Carmen y los superhéroes de la Naturaleza, Catrina exhibited at the Interactive Museum-Labyrinth of Science and Arts in San Luis Potosí City (San Luis Potosí, Mexico)
Chair decorated with papier-mâché and mother of pearl, exhibited in the Museum of Carmen de Maipú (Chile)
Papier-mâché shark
Papier-mâché rooster at Lisbon (Portugal)

Papier-mâché was used in a number of firearms as a material to form sabots.