Sabot (firearms)

Function of an APFSDS sabot red: propellant orange: long rod penetrator yellow: propellant gases green: sabot blue: gun barrel
American 120 mm M829A2 APFSDS shell.
Lead bullet being supported by a wooden cup sabot in a Delvigne gun.
Series of individual 1/1,000,000 second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and expanding cup sabot separation.
Cup sabot function
thumb|Sabot shell with cup sabot for an 1824 Paixhans gun.
Expanding cup sabot function
.30-06 cartridge with expanding cup sabot projectile.
Base sabot function
APDS-projectile with base sabot and "support ring" sabot.
Spindle sabot function
French OFL 120 F1 APFSDS long rod penetrator with "saddle-back" spindle sabot.
Ring sabot function.
Soviet 125 mm BM-15 long rod penetrator projectile with ring sabot.

Supportive device used in firearm/artillery ammunitions to fit/patch around a projectile, such as a bullet/slug or a flechette-like projectile , and keep it aligned in the center of the barrel when fired.

- Sabot (firearms)
Function of an APFSDS sabot red: propellant orange: long rod penetrator yellow: propellant gases green: sabot blue: gun barrel

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Shotgun slug

Shotgun slug

Heavy projectile made of lead, copper, or other material and fired from a shotgun.

Heavy projectile made of lead, copper, or other material and fired from a shotgun.

Shotgun slug
A 12 gauge Brenneke slug
A Remington 870 12 gauge with sighted cylinder bore barrel suitable for Foster slugs and buckshot
From the left, plumbata discarding sabot (No. 1); plumbata slugs (No. 2, No. 5); wad slug (No. 3), sabot slugs (No. 3, No. 4)

Many of these slugs are saboted sub-caliber projectiles, resulting in greatly improved external ballistics performance.

French anti-tank round with its sabot

Kinetic energy penetrator

Type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour using a flechette-like, high-sectional density projectile.

Type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour using a flechette-like, high-sectional density projectile.

French anti-tank round with its sabot
A partly cut-away 30 × 173 mm APFSDS-T round

Firing a small-diameter projectile wrapped in a lightweight outer shell, called a sabot, raises the muzzle velocity.

Represents how evidence is found in a shooting

External ballistics

Part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

Part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

Represents how evidence is found in a shooting
Typical trajectory graph for a M4 carbine and M16A2 rifle using identical M855 cartridges with identical projectiles. Though both trajectories have an identical 25 m near zero, the difference in muzzle velocity of the projectiles gradually causes a significant difference in trajectory and far zero. The 0 inch axis represents the line of sight or horizontal sighting plane.
Jacob Castro - Forensics Final Project (1)
Schlieren photo/Shadowgraph of the detached shock or bow shockwave around a bullet in supersonic flight, published by Ernst Mach in 1888.
G1 shape standard projectile. All measurements in calibers/diameters.
G7 shape standard projectile. All measurements in calibers/diameters.
Five bullets used in United States military loadings from left to right: M1903 bullet, M1906 ball, M1 ball, M2 ball used by Dr. Pejsa for the second reference drag curve, and M2 armor-piercing (AP) bullet
Left German 7.9 mm s.S. (FMJ) and right S.m.E. ammunition beside their boat-tailed projectiles with cannelures
The Magnus effect

Projectiles like arrows or arrow like sabots such as the M829 Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized, Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) achieve stability by forcing their center of pressure (CP) behind their center of Mass (CM) with tail surfaces. The CP behind the CM condition yields stable projectile flight, meaning the projectile will not overturn during flight through the atmosphere due to aerodynamic forces.

Mardi Gras papier-mâché masks, Haiti

Papier-mâché

Composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

Composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

Mardi Gras papier-mâché masks, Haiti
Papier-mâché Catrinas, traditional figures for day of the dead celebrations in Mexico
Papier-mâché with the strips method for the creation of a pig
Papier-mâché mask created with the pulp method
Detail of gilt papier-mâché as applied to an English picture frame
Building of a papier-mâché mask for the sculpture of Nichi Vendola, in the Carnival of Massafra
The Schenkl projectile, used in the American Civil War, used a papier-mâché sabot
Santi Guglielmo e Pellegrino in the Foggia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy)
Carmen y los superhéroes de la Naturaleza, Catrina exhibited at the Interactive Museum-Labyrinth of Science and Arts in San Luis Potosí City (San Luis Potosí, Mexico)
Chair decorated with papier-mâché and mother of pearl, exhibited in the Museum of Carmen de Maipú (Chile)
Papier-mâché shark
Papier-mâché rooster at Lisbon (Portugal)

Papier-mâché was used in a number of firearms as a material to form sabots.

Swedish "37/24 mm slpprj m/49" APDS projectile for the Bofors 37 mm anti-tank gun from 1949. 37/24 indicates full-calibre with sabot and sub-calibre without sabot — 37 /. Left object shows the projectile with sabot, central object shows projectile without sabot and the right object is the projectile's tungsten-core.

Armour-piercing discarding sabot

Type of spin-stabilized kinetic energy projectile for anti-armour warfare.

Type of spin-stabilized kinetic energy projectile for anti-armour warfare.

Swedish "37/24 mm slpprj m/49" APDS projectile for the Bofors 37 mm anti-tank gun from 1949. 37/24 indicates full-calibre with sabot and sub-calibre without sabot — 37 /. Left object shows the projectile with sabot, central object shows projectile without sabot and the right object is the projectile's tungsten-core.
A modern APFSDS-T projectile shortly after muzzle exit, just as the sabot petals are separating from the penetrator.
Diagram showing the operation of the discarding sabot on APDS-projectiles. This example uses a "spindle-sabot".

Each projectile consists of a sub-calibre round fitted with a sabot.

APFSDS at point of separation of sabot

Armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot

Type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armor.

Type of kinetic energy penetrator ammunition used to attack modern vehicle armor.

APFSDS at point of separation of sabot
Modern 120 mm tank gun shells

Complicating matters, when foreign deployment of military forces or export sales markets are considered, a sabot designed specifically to launch a DU penetrator cannot simply be used to launch a substitute WHA penetrator, even of exactly the same manufactured geometry.

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

Shotgun

Long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small pellet-like spherical sub-projectiles called shot, or sometimes a single solid projectile called a slug.

Long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small pellet-like spherical sub-projectiles called shot, or sometimes a single solid projectile called a slug.

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation
Vincent Hancock in the men's skeet finals at the 2008 Summer Olympics
A Gurkha Contingent trooper in Singapore armed with a folding stock pump shotgun
An American marine fires a Benelli M4 shotgun during training in Arta, Djibouti, 23 December 2006
Confederate cavalryman
A United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun during World War II
A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, shown with the action open
A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs
A modern reproduction of the Winchester M1887 lever-action shotgun
Closeup of MTs255
A Browning A-5 semi-automatic shotgun
A United States Army soldier armed with a Mossberg 500 shotgun
Bond Arms Cowboy Defender .45 Colt/.410 Shotshell Derringer
U.S. Marines fire their shotguns
Loading 12-gauge shells
Two rounds of Fiocchi 12-gauge rubber buckshot
A homemade lupara
A RCMP officer in 2010 armed with a shotgun outfitted to fire beanbag rounds
Barack Obama skeet shooting with a Browning Citori 525 on the range at Camp David

Use of a smoothbore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more.

Bullet parts: 1 metal jacket, 2 lead core, 3 steel penetrator

Terminal ballistics

Sub-field of ballistics concerned with the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

Sub-field of ballistics concerned with the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.

Bullet parts: 1 metal jacket, 2 lead core, 3 steel penetrator
.32 ACP full metal jacket, .32 S&W Long wadcutter, .380 ACP jacketed hollow point
Example photo of the over-penetration of a fragmenting projectile.
Wound ballistics for various Soviet cartridges
AK-47 7.62x39mm wound ballistics
AK-74 5.45x39mm wound ballistics
M16 5.56x45mm wound ballistics
M16A2 M855 5.56X45mm NATO wound ballistics

For larger, higher-velocity calibers, such as tank guns, hardness is of secondary importance to density, and are normally sub-caliber projectiles made from tungsten carbide, tungsten hard alloy or depleted uranium fired in a light aluminum or magnesium alloy (or carbon fibre in some cases) sabot.

7.5×55mm Swiss full metal jacket, armor piercing, and tracer, spitzer projectiles. The three bullets on the left show cannelure evolution

Bullet

Kinetic projectile, a component of firearm ammunition that is shot from a gun barrel.

Kinetic projectile, a component of firearm ammunition that is shot from a gun barrel.

7.5×55mm Swiss full metal jacket, armor piercing, and tracer, spitzer projectiles. The three bullets on the left show cannelure evolution
Round shot from the 16th century Mary Rose English warship, showing both stone and iron ball shot
Matchlock musket balls, alleged to have been discovered at Naseby battlefield
Delvigne further developed cylindro-spherical (left) and cylindro-conical bullets (middle), which received the bullet grooves developed by Tamisier for stability
Before Tamisier's invention, the orientation of a cylindro-conical bullet tended to remain along its inertial axis, progressively setting it against its trajectory and increasingly meeting air resistance, which rendered the bullet's movement erratic
Minié ball ammunition
1855 Minié ball design from the U.S. Arsenal, Harper's Ferry, West Virginia
180x180px
A bullet in mid flight
Bullet wound on the ribs of a deer in the lung area
Expanding bullet loaded in a 6.5×55mm before and after expanding. The long base and small expanded diameter show that this is a bullet designed for deep penetration on large game. The bullet in the photo traveled more than halfway through a moose before coming to rest, performing as designed.
Hard cast solid bullet (left), with gas check (center) and lubrication (right)

ACC – Remington Accelerator (see sabot)

M829A2 cross-section

M829

[[File:M829.jpg|thumb|150px|

[[File:M829.jpg|thumb|150px|

M829A2 cross-section

The M829 is an American armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot (APFSDS) tank round.