A report on Sacred language

Navy Chaplain Milton Gianulis conducts an Easter morning Orthodox Liturgy candlelight service aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)

Any language that is cultivated and used primarily in church service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily lives.

- Sacred language
Navy Chaplain Milton Gianulis conducts an Easter morning Orthodox Liturgy candlelight service aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)

40 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Hebrew language

7 links

Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

The word HEBREW written in modern Hebrew language (top) and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
The Shebna Inscription, from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam, dates to the 7th century BCE.
Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Rashi script
A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Hebrew alphabet

It was largely preserved throughout history as the main liturgical language of Judaism (since the Second Temple period) and Samaritanism.

Arabic

7 links

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

It is the lingua franca of the Arab world and the liturgical language of Islam.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script

Aramaic

6 links

Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria.

Semitic language that originated among the Arameans in the ancient region of Syria.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script
Syriac-Aramaic alphabet
The Carpentras Stele was the first ancient inscription ever identified as "Aramaic". Although it was first published in 1704, it was not identified as Aramaic until 1821, when Ulrich Friedrich Kopp complained that previous scholars had left everything "to the Phoenicians and nothing to the Arameans, as if they could not have written at all".
Syriac inscription at the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church's Major Archbishop's House in Kerala, India
"Jesus" in Jewish Aramaic
11th century book in Syriac Serto
One of the Bar-Rakib inscriptions from Sam'al. The inscription is in the Samalian language (also considered a dialect).
Coin of Alexander the Great bearing an Aramaic language inscription
The Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian king Ashoka, 3rd century BC at Kandahar, Afghanistan
11th century Hebrew Bible with Targum intercalated between verses of Hebrew text
Mandaic magical "demon trap"
9th century Syriac Estrangela manuscript of John Chrysostom's Homily on the Gospel of John
Hebrew (left) and Aramaic (right) in parallel in a 1299 Hebrew Bible held by the Bodleian Library
Territorial distribution of Neo-Aramaic languages in the Near East
Amen in East Syriac Aramaic

Some variants of Aramaic are also retained as sacred languages by certain religious communities.

Old Church Slavonic

4 links

The first Slavic literary language.

The first Slavic literary language.

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
297x297px
A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

Old Church Slavonic played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day.

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)

Bible

4 links

Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

Collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions.

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible (mid-15th century)
Hebrew Bible from 1300. Genesis.
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, c. 1619 painting by Valentin de Boulogne
The Rylands fragment P52 verso is the oldest existing fragment of New Testament papyrus. It contains phrases from the Book of John.
Salomé, by Henri Regnault (1870).
A Bible is placed centrally on a Lutheran altar, highlighting its importance
A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne.
Samaritan Inscription containing portion of the Bible in nine lines of Hebrew text, currently housed in the British Museum
Hebrew text of Psalm 1:1–2
The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, contains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2nd century BCE.
The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisrael prayer.
Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation.
A page from the Gutenberg Bible
The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament".
St. Jerome in His Study, by Marinus van Reymerswaele, 1541. Jerome produced a 4th-century Latin edition of the Bible, known as the Vulgate, that became the Catholic Church's official translation.
Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588. William Morgan (1545–1604)
An early German translation by Martin Luther. His translation of the text into the vernacular was highly influential.
The Tel Dan Stele, Israel Museum. Highlighted in white: the sequence B Y T D W D.
Jean Astruc, often called the "Father of Biblical criticism", at Centre hospitalier universitaire de Toulouse
Old Bible from a Greek monastery
Imperial Bible, or Vienna Coronation Gospels from Wien (Austria), c 1500.
The Kennicott Bible, 1476
A Baroque Bible
The Bible used by Abraham Lincoln for his oath of office during his first inauguration in 1861
American Civil War Era Illustrated Bible
A miniature Bible
1866 Victorian Bible
Shelves of the Bizzell Bible Collection at Bizzell Memorial Library
Detail of Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472–1475) shows the Virgin Mary reading the Bible.
Bible from 1150, from Scriptorium de Chartres, Christ with angels
Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France Bible, 13th century
Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 37, the 3rd image, Abner (in the centre in green) sends Michal back to David.
Jephthah's daughter laments – Maciejowski Bible (France, ca. 1250)
Coloured version of the Whore of Babylon illustration from Martin Luther's 1534 translation of the Bible
An Armenian Bible, 17th century, illuminated by Malnazar
Fleeing Sodom and Gomorrah, Foster Bible, 19th century
Jonah being swallowed by the fish, Kennicott Bible, 1476
Hebrew-Samaritan script
Creation of Light, by Gustave Doré.
Song of Songs (Das Hohelied Salomos), No. 11 by Egon Tschirch, 1923

Finally, the rabbis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek – even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given the status of a sacred language comparable to Hebrew).

Syriac language

3 links

Aramaic dialect that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken by Assyrians in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.

Aramaic dialect that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken by Assyrians in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.

An 11th-century Syriac manuscript
Syriac alphabet
Late Syriac text, written in Madnhāyā script, from Thrissur, India (1799)
Lord's Prayer in Syriac language
Ancient mosaic from Edessa (from the 2nd century CE) with inscriptions in early Edessan Aramaic (Old Syriac)
Syriac "Codex Ambrosianus" (F. 128) from the 11th century
Bilingual Syriac and Neo-Persian psalter, in Syriac script, from the 12th-13th century
Although once a major language in the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia, Syriac is now limited to the towns and villages in the Nineveh Plains, Tur Abdin, the Khabur plains, in and around the cities of Mosul, Erbil and Kirkuk.
Modern distribution of Neo-Aramaic languages, including Neo-Syriac groups
Īšoˁ, the Syriac pronunciation of the Hebrew and Aramaic name of Jesus, Yeshuʿ (ישוע)
Linguistic homeland of Edessan Aramaic: Kingdom of Osroene between Romans and Parthians, in the 1st century AD
A warning sign in Mardin, Turkey: šeṯqā, b-ḇāʿū (ܫܬܩܐ ܒܒܥܘ, 'Silence, please') in Syriac and Lütfen! Sessiz olalım! ('Please! Let's be quiet!') in Turkish.

As a liturgical language of Syriac Christianity, it gained a prominent role among Eastern Christian communities that used both Eastern Syriac and Western Syriac rites.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Sanskrit

2 links

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria

Syriac Orthodox Church

3 links

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria
Interior of St. Stephen Church, Gütersloh.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Sayfo Monument at St. Peters & St. Pauls Church, Hallunda.
Damage to exterior of St. Mary Church of the Holy Belt during the Syrian Civil War.
Ignatius Aphrem II, current Patriarch of Antioch.
Peshitto Bible at Mor Hananyo Monastery.
Icon of the Virgin Mary by St. Luke the Evangelist.
Celebration of Mass at St. John's Church, Stuttgart, Germany.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Altar of St.Mary's Knanaya Syriac Church Kottayam.
Head Office of The Evangelistic Association Of The East.
Mor Gabriel Monastery, Midyat, Turkey
St. Awgin Monastery, Nusaybin, Turkey
St. George's Monastery, Malekurish
St. Ignatius Monastery, Manjinikkara
Mor Hananyo Monastery
Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt
St. Sharbel Church Midyat
St. Mary's Church, Bethlehem
St. Mary's Cathedral, Manarcad
Tomb of St. Baselios Yeldo
St. Ephrem Church Vienna, Austria
St. Thomas Cathedral, Acton, London, England
St. Jacob of Sarug Monastery Warburg, Germany
Church of Our Lady, Amsterdam, Netherlands
St. Avgin Monastery, Arth, Switzerland
St. Aphrem Cathedral, Södertälje, Sweden
Syriac Orthodox dioceses in the medieval period.Palestine
Syria
Lebanon and Cyprus
Cilicia
Cappadocia
Amid and Arzun
Commagene
Osrhoene
Mardin and Tur Abdin
Iraq
St. Matthew Monastery, Nineveh, Iraq
Monastery of Saint Mark, Jerusalem

Classical Syriac is the official and liturgical language of the church.

Fifth–sixth century Coptic liturgic inscription from Upper Egypt.

Coptic language

3 links

Language family of closely related dialects descended from the Ancient Egyptian language and historically spoken by the Copts of Egypt, starting from the third-century AD in Roman Egypt.

Language family of closely related dialects descended from the Ancient Egyptian language and historically spoken by the Copts of Egypt, starting from the third-century AD in Roman Egypt.

Fifth–sixth century Coptic liturgic inscription from Upper Egypt.
Eighth-century Coptic manuscript of Luke 5:5–9
Page from 19th-century Coptic-language grammar
Papyrus Bodmer VI (“Dialect P”) possesses the richest of all Coptic alphabets, with 35 unique graphemes.
Sandstone stela, inscribed with Coptic text. The names Phoibammon and Abraham appear. From Egypt, find spot unknown, date known. The British Museum, London
Coptic and Arabic inscriptions in an Old Cairo church
Pottery shard inscribed with 5 lines in Coptic Sahidic. Byzantine period, 6th century AD. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Coptic has no native speakers today, although it remains in daily use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church and of the Coptic Catholic Church.

Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.

Pali

2 links

Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.
19th century Burmese Kammavācā (confession for Buddhist monks), written in Pali on gilded palm leaf

Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent.