Sacred language

liturgical languageliturgicalritual languageLiturgical languagesReligious languageritualceremonial languageceremonial languageschurchdescribe God
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.wikipedia
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Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan are the main sacred languages of Buddhism.
It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism.

Theravada

Theravada BuddhismTheravādaTheravada Buddhist
Theravada Buddhism uses Pali as its main liturgical language and prefers its scriptures to be studied in the original Pali.
The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as the school's sacred language and lingua franca.

Extinct language

extinctdead languageextinct languages
In some cases, the sacred language is a dead language.
In contrast to an extinct language, which no longer has any speakers, or any written use, a historical language may remain in use as a literary or liturgical language long after it ceases to be spoken natively.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
Liturgical languages used in the Eastern Orthodox Church include: Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Romanian, Georgian, Arabic, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Serbian, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese, Albanian, Finnish, Swedish, Chinese, Estonian, Korean, Japanese, several African languages and other world languages.
Standard Arabic, also referred to as Literary Arabic, is the official language of 26 states, as well as the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic.

Coptic language

CopticBohairicSahidic
Coptic flourished as a literary language from the 2nd to 13th centuries and its Bohairic dialect continues to be the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Old Georgian

GeorgianOld Georgian languageoge
The language remains in use as the liturgical language of the Georgian Orthodox Church and for the most part is still intelligible.

Classical Armenian

Old ArmenianArmenianClassical
Classical Armenian continues to be the liturgical language of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church and is often learned by Biblical, Intertestamental, and Patristic scholars dedicated to textual studies.

Pope Pius XII

Pius XIIEugenio PacelliCardinal Pacelli
In the 20th century, Pope Pius XII granted permission for a few vernaculars to be used in a few rites, rituals, and ceremonies.
Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, a long-time critic of Pius XII's policies during World War II and an opponent of clerical celibacy and the use of Latin as language of the liturgy, was excommunicated by Pius XII on 2 July 1945.

Chaldean Catholic Church

Chaldean CatholicChaldeanChaldean Church
In the 5th century BC, the region of Assyria was the birthplace of the Syriac language and Syriac script, the terms 'Syriac' and 'Syrian' being historically and etymologically derived from 'Assyria' (see Etymology of Syria) both of which remain important within all strands of Syriac Christianity as a liturgical language, similar to how Latin or Koine Greek may be used in the Latin Church or Greek Orthodoxy, and the Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Bulgarian) in the Slavic Orthodoxy.

Syriac language

SyriacClassical SyriacSyriac-Aramaic
From the 1st century AD, Syriac became the vehicle of Syriac Christianity and culture, and the liturgical language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Maronite Church, and the Church of the East, along with its descendants: the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, and the Assyrian Pentecostal Church.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan are the main sacred languages of Buddhism. Liturgical languages used in the Eastern Orthodox Church include: Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Romanian, Georgian, Arabic, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Serbian, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese, Albanian, Finnish, Swedish, Chinese, Estonian, Korean, Japanese, several African languages and other world languages.
Buddhist terminology is generally derived from Sanskrit or Pāli, the liturgical languages of North India.

Hebrew language

HebrewHebrew grammarHeb.
Gradually, the Roman Liturgy took on more and more Latin until, generally, only a few words of Hebrew and Greek remained.
Motivated by the surrounding ideals of renovation and rejection of the diaspora "shtetl" lifestyle, Ben-Yehuda set out to develop tools for making the literary and liturgical language into everyday spoken language.

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languageDaco-Romanian
Liturgical languages used in the Eastern Orthodox Church include: Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Romanian, Georgian, Arabic, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Serbian, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese, Albanian, Finnish, Swedish, Chinese, Estonian, Korean, Japanese, several African languages and other world languages.
The greater part of its Slavic vocabulary comes from Old Church Slavonic, which was the official written language of Wallachia and Moldavia from the 14th to the 18th century (although not understood by most people), as well as the liturgical language of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Damin

Damin language
Damin (Demiin in the practical orthography of Lardil) was a ceremonial language register used by the advanced initiated men of the aboriginal Lardil (Leerdil in the practical orthography) and the Yangkaal peoples of northern Australia.

Divine language

divineMystical languageWord of God
The concept of sacred languages is distinct from that of divine languages, which are languages ascribed to the divine (i.e. God or gods) and may not necessarily be natural languages.

Traditionalist Catholicism

Traditionalist CatholicTraditionalist Catholicstraditionalist
The use of vernacular language in liturgical practice after 1964 created controversy for a minority of Catholics, and opposition to liturgical vernacular is a major tenet of the Catholic Traditionalist movement.
They also reject the replacement of the UGCC's liturgical language, Old Church Slavonic, with the vernacular Ukrainian language.

Geʽez

Ge'ezEthiopicGe'ez language
Today, Geʽez is used only as the main liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church, and the Beta Israel Jewish community.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Ge'ez remains important as a liturgical language, both for the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, and for the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews).

Jamaican Maroon Creole

Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession LanguageMaroon Spirit languageJamaican Maroon spirit-possession language
Jamaican Maroon spirit-possession language, Maroon Spirit language, Jamaican Maroon Creole or Deep patwa is a ritual language and formerly mother tongue of Jamaican Maroons.

Pali

PāliPali languagePāḷi
Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan are the main sacred languages of Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism uses Pali as its main liturgical language and prefers its scriptures to be studied in the original Pali.
It is widely studied because it is the language of the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka, and is the sacred language of Theravāda Buddhism.

Gujarati language

GujaratiGujratiGujarati-language
Apart from Sanskrit, several Hindu spiritual works were composed in the various regional languages of India such as Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Odia, Maithili, Punjabi, Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi and Tulu.
While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after.

Church Slavonic language

Church SlavonicSlavonicChurch Slavic
Liturgical languages used in the Eastern Orthodox Church include: Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Romanian, Georgian, Arabic, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Serbian, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese, Albanian, Finnish, Swedish, Chinese, Estonian, Korean, Japanese, several African languages and other world languages. Church Slavonic was used for the celebration of the Roman Liturgy in the 9th century (twice, 867-873 and 880-885).
Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, tsrĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ/yęzykŭ, literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic sacred language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia.

Old Church Slavonic

Old BulgarianSlavonicOld Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day.

Sumerian language

Sumerianancient Sumerianeme-sal
The term "Post-Sumerian" is meant to refer to the time when the language was already extinct and preserved by Babylonians and Assyrians only as a liturgical and classical language for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes.