Saddam Hussein

SaddamSadam HusseinSadaam HusseinHusseinHala HusseinSaddam HussienSaddam HuseinSaddam Hussein’sSaddam Hussain(Saddam) Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي ; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.wikipedia
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Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq

Human rights in Saddam's IraqSaddam's Dirty Dozenthe Hussein government's human rights record
The total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000.
Iraq's era under President Saddam Hussein was notorious for its severe violations of human rights.

Kurds in Iraq

Iraqi KurdsKurdsKurdish
He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.
After the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, Iraqi Kurds, now governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), face a crossroads in the political trajectory of Iraqi Kurdistan.

Sanctions against Iraq

Iraq sanctionssanctionsUN sanctions against Iraq
In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.
They began August 6, 1990, four days after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, stayed largely in force until May 22, 2003 (after Saddam Hussein's being forced from power), and persisted in part, including reparations to Kuwait, through the present.

Gulf War

Operation Desert StormPersian Gulf WarOperation Desert Shield
In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.
When Iraqi President Saddam Hussein expelled Abu Nidal to Syria at the US's request in November 1983, the Reagan administration sent Donald Rumsfeld to meet Saddam as a special envoy and to cultivate ties.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.
After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005.

Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

weapons of mass destructionIraqi weapons of mass destructionweapons of mass destruction in Iraq
In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair erroneously accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
The fifth President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, was internationally condemned for his use of chemical weapons during the 1980s campaign against Iranian and Kurdish civilians during and after the Iran–Iraq War.

17 July Revolution

Ba'ath coupoverthrown17 July
A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.
Both Saddam Hussein, later President of Iraq, and Salah Omar al-Ali, later a Ba'athist dissident, were major participants in the coup.

Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations

Saddam Hussein and al-Qaedapossible involvement by Saddam Husseinties to al-Qaeda
In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair erroneously accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).

2003 invasion of Iraq

invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair erroneously accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
And while hundreds of chemical weapons were found in Iraq after the invasion, they determined to be produced before the 1991 Gulf War, from years earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule and were unusable.

Operation Red Dawn

capture of Saddam Husseincapturedhis capture
Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government.
Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.

Iran–Iraq War

Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran War
In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and UN sanctions.
Saddam Hussein claimed that the Islamic Republic of Iran refused to abide by the stipulations of the Algiers Protocol and, therefore, Iraq considered the Protocol null and void.

Trial of Saddam Hussein

trialAl-Dujail trialdefence of one of Saddam Hussein's co-accused
Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government.
The trial of Saddam Hussein was the trial of the deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Interim Government for crimes against humanity during his time in office.

Execution of Saddam Hussein

executedSaddam Hussein was executeddeath
He was executed on 30 December 2006.
Saddam was sentenced to death by hanging, after being convicted of crimes against humanity by the Iraqi Special Tribunal for the murder of 148 Iraqi Shi'ites in the town of Dujail in 1982, in retaliation for an assassination attempt against him.

Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr

Ahmad Hasan al-BakrAhmed Hasan al-BakrAhmad Hassan al-Bakr
As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces.
It was during this period that al-Bakr was elected the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi branch's Secretary General (the head), and appointed his cousin, Saddam Hussein, to be the party cell's deputy leader.

Dujail Massacre

massacre of 148 civilians1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'aHead of the Revolutionary Court for Dujail
On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted by an Iraqi court of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'a, and sentenced to death by hanging.
The Dujail Massacre refers to the events following an assassination attempt against the Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on 8 July 1982 in Dujail.

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region

Ba'ath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyIraqi Regional Branch
A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.
Saddam Hussein was a member of the operation.

Iraqi Communist Party

IraqiIraqi Communistcommunist
To strengthen his own position within the government, Qasim created an alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party, which was opposed to any notion of pan-Arabism.
It suffered heavily under the Ba'ath Party and Saddam Hussein but remained an important element of the Iraqi opposition and was a vocal opponent of the United Nations sanctions imposed on Iraq after the Gulf War of 1991.

Ba'ath Party

Baath PartyArab Socialist Ba'ath PartyBaath
A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.
In retaliation, the Ba'ath Party tried to assassinate Qasim in February 1959, but the operation (which was led by a young Saddam Hussein) failed.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel, he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship.
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States.

Iraqi Intelligence Service

MukhabaratIraqi intelligenceIntelligence Service
According to The Economist, "Much as Adolf Hitler won early praise for galvanising German industry, ending mass unemployment and building autobahns, Saddam earned admiration abroad for his deeds. He had a good instinct for what the "Arab street" demanded, following the decline in Egyptian leadership brought about by the trauma of Israel's six-day victory in the 1967 war, the death of the pan-Arabist hero, Gamal Abdul Nasser, in 1970, and the "traitorous" drive by his successor, Anwar Sadat, to sue for peace with the Jewish state. Saddam's self-aggrandising propaganda, with himself posing as the defender of Arabism against Jewish or Persian intruders, was heavy-handed, but consistent as a drumbeat. It helped, of course, that his mukhabarat (secret police) put dozens of Arab news editors, writers and artists on the payroll."
The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Amma), also known as the Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence, was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein.

Israel

State of IsraelIsraeliISR
Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel, he was widely condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship.
During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel.

Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction)

Arab Socialist Ba'ath PartyBa'ath PartySyrian-led Ba'ath Party
In September 1966, Saddam initiated an extraordinary challenge to Syrian domination of the Ba'ath Party in response to the Marxist takeover of the Syrian Ba'ath earlier that year, resulting in the Party's formalized split into two separate factions.
The party opposed the rule of Saddam Hussein and was one of the first groups to be targeted by him.

President of Iraq

PresidentIraqi Presidentpresidency
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي ; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The sixth and seventh president of Iraq was held by Jay Garner and Paul Bremer, both Americans, who were appointed by Coalition Provisional Authority after the 2003 invasion of Iraq that have overthrown the fifth president, Saddam Hussein.

Tony Blair

BlairTonyPrime Minister Tony Blair
In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair erroneously accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
In 2009, Blair stated that he would have supported removing Saddam Hussein from power even in the face of proof that he had no such weapons.

Shia Islam in Iraq

Iraqi ShiaShiaShi'ite
He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.
Less than a year later, after an attempt to assassinate Saddam Hussein, Sadr was executed.