Safavid dynasty

SafavidSafavid EmpireSafavidsShah of IranSafavid PersiaSafavid IranPersiaSafavid eraPersianSafavid Iranian
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.wikipedia
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History of Islam

Islamic historyMuslim historyhistory
They established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
Nonetheless, in the Early Modern period, the Islamic gunpowder empires—the Ottoman Empire, Safavid Iran and Mughal India—emerged as great world powers.

Bahrain

Kingdom of BahrainBahreinBHR
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty under the Persian Empire.

Greater Iran

PersiaGreater PersiaIran
From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran.
In recent centuries, Iran lost many of the territories conquered under the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, including Iraq to the Ottomans (via the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639), western Afghanistan to the British (via the Treaty of Paris in 1857 and the MacMahon Arbitration in 1905), and Caucasus territories to Russia during the Russo-Persian Wars of the 19th century.

Safavid art

SafavidSafavid architectureSafavid style
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts.
Safavid art is the art of the Persian Safavid dynasty from 1501 to 1722, in present-day Iran and Caucasia.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.

Ardabil

ArdebilArdabil ShrineArdabil city
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region.
Ardabil is also home to a World Heritage Site, the Ardabil Shrine, the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponymous founder of the Safavid dynasty.

Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiismadoption imposedattempts to convert
The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.
Through their actions, the Safavids reunified Iran as an independent state in 1501 and established Twelver Shiism as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.

Tahmasp I

Shah TahmaspShah Tahmasp ITahmasp
In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries, especially with the accession of Tahmasp I.
Tahmasp I (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.

Khan (title)

KhanKhansKhan Bahadur
Junayd sought refuge with the rival of Kara Koyunlu Jahan Shah, the Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep Turkomans) Khan Uzun Hassan, and cemented his relationship by marrying Uzun Hassan's sister, Khadija Begum.
In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, and in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran.

Qizilbash

KızılbaşKizilbashQizilbashi
By this time, the bulk of the Safaviyya were nomadic Oghuz Turkic-speaking clans from Asia Minor and Azerbaijan and were known as Qizilbash "Red Heads" because of their distinct red headgear.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Kızılbaş "Red-Head", sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, / qezelbāš) were a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as "Iranian Azerbaijan"), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.

Armenia

ArmenianRepublic of ArmeniaARM
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Between the 16th and 18th century, the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara, Iranian Safavids, and Indian Mughals ruled parts of the territory.

Tabriz

Tabriz, IranTabrīzTebriz
Afterwards, Ismail went on a conquest campaign, capturing Tabriz in July 1501, where he enthroned himself the Shāh of Azerbaijan, proclaimed himself Shahanshah of Iran and minted coins in his name, proclaiming Shiʻism the official religion of his domain.
Most of Tabriz's preserved historical sites belong to Ilkhanid, Safavid and Qajar.

Ismail I

Shah Ismail IShah IsmailKhatai
Haydar married Martha 'Alamshah Begom, Uzun Hassan's daughter, who gave birth to Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty.
Ismail I (, ; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran.

Culture of Iran

Iranian culturePersianPersian culture
From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran.
Azerbaijani literature has also had a profound effect on Iran's literature with it being developed highly after Iran's first reunification in 800 years under the Safavid Empire, whose rulers themselves wrote poetry.

Farrukh Yassar

Farrokh YaṣarI Farrukh YassarShirvanshah Farrukh Yassar I
In 1500, the first Safavid ruler, Ismail I, decisively defeated and killed Farrukh Yassar during his conquest of the area.

Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of Georgia
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Neighboring large empires subsequently exploited the internal division of the weakened country, and beginning in the 16th century up to the late 18th century, Safavid Iran (and successive Iranian Afsharid and Qajar dynasties) and Ottoman Turkey subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively.

Pontic Greeks

Pontic GreekPonticGreeks
It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish ancestry but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries.
During this long period of resistance many Pontic Greeks nobles and aristocrats married foreign emperors and dynasties, most notably of Medieval Russia, Medieval Georgia, or the Safavid Persian dynasty, and to a lesser extent the Kara Koyunlu rulers, in order to gain their protection and aid against the Ottoman threat.

Despina Khatun

TheodoraDespina HatunTheodora Komnene
Martha's mother Theodora—better known as Despina Khatun —was a Pontic Greek princess, the daughter of the Grand Komnenos John IV of Trebizond.
She became the mother of Martha (Halima) who became the mother of first Safavid king, Shah Ismail I.

Safi-ad-din Ardabili

Sheikh SafiSafi al-DinSafî ad-Dîn
Safavid history begins with the establishment of the Safaviyya by its eponymous founder Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334).
Sheikh Safi-ad-din Is'haq Ardabili (of Ardabil) (1252–1334) ( Shaikh Ṣāfī ad-Dīn Isḥāq Ardabīlī), was the Kurdish and Sunni Muslim eponym of the Safavid dynasty, founder of the Safaviyya order, and the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan province in northern Iran.

Safavid order

SafaviyyaSafaviyehSafaviya
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. Safavid history begins with the establishment of the Safaviyya by its eponymous founder Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334).
It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty.

Zahediyeh

ZahediyyaZahidiyyeZahidī
In 700/1301, Safi al-Din assumed the leadership of the Zahediyeh, a significant Sufi order in Gilan, from his spiritual master and father-in-law Zahed Gilani.
As a precursor to the Safaviyya tariqa, which was yet to culminate in the Safavid Dynasty, the Zahediyeh Order and its murshid, Sheikh Zahed Gilani, holds a distinct place in the history of Iran.

Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp

Shahnameh'' of Shah TahmaspHoughton ''ShahnamehHoughton Shahnameh
Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well.
He commissioned the most prominent artists of Safavid Persia, to illustrate this manuscript as a demonstration of the shift in political landscape and as an assertion of his dominance as the Shah.

Kurds

KurdishKurdKurdish people
It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish ancestry but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries.
The Safavid Dynasty, established in 1501, also established its rule over Kurdish-inhabited territories.