Safety engineering

safetyengineering safetysafety engineerengineeringfault treeHigh Integrity Systemsinfrastructure safetyoff-set collision testingsafe operation
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety.wikipedia
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Industrial engineering

industrial engineerindustrialIndustrial Engineering and Management
It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, and the subset system safety engineering.
Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, supply chain engineering, management science, management engineering, financial engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.

Safety-critical system

safety-criticallife-critical systemsafety critical
Safety engineering assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed, even when components fail.
Risks of this sort are usually managed with the methods and tools of safety engineering.

Fault tree analysis

fault treeevent treesfault tree analysis (FTA)
The two most common fault modeling techniques are called failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis.
This analysis method is mainly used in the fields of safety engineering and reliability engineering to understand how systems can fail, to identify the best ways to reduce risk or to determine (or get a feeling for) event rates of a safety accident or a particular system level (functional) failure.

Failure mode and effects analysis

FMEAfailure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)failure modes and effects analysis
The two most common fault modeling techniques are called failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis.
FMEA is an inductive reasoning (forward logic) single point of failure analysis and is a core task in reliability engineering, safety engineering and quality engineering.

Probabilistic risk assessment

risk analysisProbabilistic Safety Assessmentlikelihood of environmental harms
These techniques are just ways of finding problems and of making plans to cope with failures, as in probabilistic risk assessment.
Two common methods of answering this last question are event tree analysis and fault tree analysis – for explanations of these, see safety engineering.

Systems engineering

systems engineersystem engineeringsystems
It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, and the subset system safety engineering.
Use of methods that allow early detection of possible failures, in safety engineering, are integrated into the design process.

System safety

safesafetySenior Safety Technical Manager
It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering, and the subset system safety engineering.
Safety engineering describes some methods used in nuclear and other industries.

Safety

refugeprotectionsafe
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety.

Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis

FMECAcritical failure analysisfailure modes, effects and criticality analysis
When combined with criticality analysis, FMEA is known as Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis or FMECA, pronounced "fuh-MEE-kuh".

Elevator

liftliftselevators
Another common example is that in an elevator the cable supporting the car keeps spring-loaded brakes open.
This brake is usually an external drum type and is actuated by spring force and held open electrically; a power failure will cause the brake to engage and prevent the elevator from falling (see inherent safety and safety engineering).

Nuclear reactor

nuclear reactorsreactorreactors
Usually a failure in safety-certified systems is acceptable if, on average, less than one life per 10 9 hours of continuous operation is lost to failure.{as per FAA document AC 25.1309-1A} Most Western nuclear reactors, medical equipment, and commercial aircraft are certified to this level.

Single point of failure

single points of failurecentral point of failurecauses the entire circuit to "open" or stop operating
Safety-critical systems are commonly required to permit no single event or component failure to result in a catastrophic failure mode.

Passive nuclear safety

passive safetypassively safeinherent reactor safety
The typical approach is to arrange the system so that ordinary single failures cause the mechanism to shut down in a safe way (for nuclear power plants, this is termed a passively safe design, although more than ordinary failures are covered).

WASH-1400

Rasmussen Report
One of the earliest complete studies using this technique on a commercial nuclear plant was the WASH-1400 study, also known as the Reactor Safety Study or the Rasmussen Report.

Inductive reasoning

inductioninductiveinductive logic
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method which may be performed at either the functional or piece-part level.

Block diagram

block-diagramblock flow diagramblock flow diagrams
For functional FMEA, failure modes are identified for each function in a system or equipment item, usually with the help of a functional block diagram.

Failure rate

hazard functionMean Distance Between FailuresDecreasing failure rate
The effects of the failure mode are described, and assigned a probability based on the failure rate and failure mode ratio of the function or component.

Deductive reasoning

deductiondeductivedeductive logic
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a top-down, deductive analytical method.

Boolean algebra

Boolean logicBooleanBoolean algebra (logic)
In FTA, initiating primary events such as component failures, human errors, and external events are traced through Boolean logic gates to an undesired top event such as an aircraft crash or nuclear reactor core melt.

De Morgan's laws

De Morgan's lawDe Morgan's theoremDe Morgan dual
Fault trees are a logical inverse of success trees, and may be obtained by applying de Morgan's theorem to success trees (which are directly related to reliability block diagrams).

Reliability block diagram

dependence diagramreliability block diagramming
Fault trees are a logical inverse of success trees, and may be obtained by applying de Morgan's theorem to success trees (which are directly related to reliability block diagrams).

Electric Power Research Institute

EPRIElectric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Quantitative FTA is used to compute top event probability, and usually requires computer software such as CAFTA from the Electric Power Research Institute or SAPHIRE from the Idaho National Laboratory.

SAPHIRE

Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations
Quantitative FTA is used to compute top event probability, and usually requires computer software such as CAFTA from the Electric Power Research Institute or SAPHIRE from the Idaho National Laboratory.

Idaho National Laboratory

National Reactor Testing StationIdaho National Engineering LaboratoryIdaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
Quantitative FTA is used to compute top event probability, and usually requires computer software such as CAFTA from the Electric Power Research Institute or SAPHIRE from the Idaho National Laboratory.

Event tree

tree diagram
Some industries use both fault trees and event trees.