Sagala

Sagala in the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great (c. 250 B.C.)
Sagala in the Indo-Scythian kingdom (150 BCE–400 CE)
Sagala was included in Alexander's campaign in ancient India.
Sagala as a part of the Shunga Empire c. 185 to 73 BC.

City in ancient India, which was the predecessor of the modern city of Sialkot that is located in what is now Pakistan's northern Punjab province.

- Sagala

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Madra Kingdom

Kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata.

Map of Aryavarta

Its capital was Sagala in Madra region, modern Sialkot in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Sialkot

City in Punjab, Pakistan.

Iqbal Manzil the residence of Allama Iqbal
Iqbal Chowk
Allama Iqbal, the philosopher-poet credited inspiring the Pakistan Movement, was born in Sialkot in 1877.
Sialkot Gate
200px
A boulevard in Sialkot
Sialkot International Airport

Sialkot is believed to be the site of ancient Sagala, a city razed by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE, and then made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I in the 2nd century BCE—a time during which the city greatly prospered as a major centre for trade and Buddhist thought.

Milinda Panha

Buddhist text which dates from sometime between 100 BC and 200 AD. It purports to record a dialogue between the Indian Buddhist sage Nāgasena, and the Indo-Greek king Menander I of Bactria, who reigned in the 2nd century BC.

King Milinda asks questions.

The text mentions Nāgasena's father Soñuttara, his teachers Rohana, Assagutta of Vattaniya and Dhammarakkhita of Asoka Ārāma near Pātaliputta, and another teacher named Āyupāla from Sankheyya near Sāgala.

Indo-Greek Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

Menander I's capital was at Sagala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot).

Menander I

Portrait of Menander I Soter, from his coinage
2. Silver drachm of Menander I (155-130 BC).
Obv: Greek legend, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU) lit. "Of Saviour King Menander".
Rev: Kharosthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA MENAMDRASA "Saviour King Menander". Athena advancing right, with thunderbolt and shield. Taxila mint mark.
Another silver drachm of Menander I, dated circa 160-145 BC. Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ ('of King Menander the Saviour'), heroic bust of Menander, viewed from behind, head turned to left; Reverse: Athena standing right, brandishing thunderbolt and holding aegis, Karosthi legend around, monogram in field to left. Reference: Sear 7604.
Silver coin of Menander
Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ
(BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU)
lit. "Of Saviour King Menander". British Museum.
King Milinda asks questions.
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
The Bharhut Yavana. Indian relief of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 2nd century BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Butkara stupa as expanded during the reign of Menander I.
4. Silver coin of Menander, with Athena on reverse. British Museum.
Coin of Menander II. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ, "Of King Menander, the Just".
Comparison of the portraits of Menander I (left) and Menander II (right).
Coin of Strato I and Agathokleia.
Obv: Conjugate busts of Strato and Agathokleia. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS STRATONOS KAI AGATOKLEIAS "Of King Strato the Saviour and Agathokleia".
Rev: Athena throwing thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASARA DHARMIKASA STRATASA "King Strato, Saviour and Just (="of the Dharma")".
Vitarka Mudra gestures on Indo-Greek coinage. Top: Divinities Tyche and Zeus. Bottom: Depiction of Indo-Greek kings Nicias and Menander II.
Menander coin with elephant.
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I, Sanchi. Satavahana period, 2nd or 1st century BC.
One of the first known representations of the Buddha, Gandhara.
Detail of Asia in the Ptolemy world map. The "Menander Mons" are in the center of the map, at the east of the Indian subcontinent, right above the Malaysian Peninsula.
See picture

Menander I Soter (, Ménandros Sōtḗr, Menandrauou Sotiros, ‘Menander the Saviour’) (Pali: मिलिन्दो, Milinda), was a Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek King (reigned c.165 /155 –130 BC) who administered a large territory in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.

Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
350px
GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

The Indo-Greek kingdom founded by Demetrius (180-165 BC) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165-150 BC), with its capital in Sagala (present-day Sialkot), thriving the greco-buddhist culture in the region.

Nagasena

Sarvastivadan Buddhist sage who lived around 150 BC. His answers to questions about Buddhism posed by Menander I , the Indo-Greek king of northwestern India, are recorded in the Milinda Pañha and the Sanskrit Nāgasenabhiksusūtra.

Nagasena Arhat by Guanxiu
King Milinda and Nagasena.

Other personalities mentioned in the text are Nāgasena's father Soñuttara, his teachers Rohana, Assagutta of Vattaniya and another teacher named Āyupāla from Sankheyya near Sāgala.

Euthydemia

Sagala in the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great (c. 250 B.C.)

Euthymedia or Euthydemia (Ευθυμεδεία) was the ancient city of Sagala belonging to the Bactrian Dynasty, now located in modern-day Sialkot, Pakistan.

List of capitals of India

List of locations which have served as the capital city of India.

Skyline of Tokyo, the capital and financial centre of Japan

Sagala: Capital of the Indo-Greeks

Alexander Cunningham

British Army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India.

Cunningham (fourth from the right) at an unknown date
Leh Palace, Ladakh. Illustration from Ladak: Physical, Statistical, and Historical
Letter dated 31 January 1862, appointing Cunningham as Surveyor General

Cunningham was able to identify some of the places mentioned by Xuanzang, and counted among his major achievements the identification of Aornos, Taxila, Sangala, Srughna, Ahichchhatra, Bairat, Sankisa, Shravasti, Kaushambi, Padmavati, Vaishali, and Nalanda.