Saint Lawrence Seaway

St. Lawrence SeawaySt Lawrence SeawaySeawayLake St. LawrenceSt. Lawrence WaterwayGreat Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway SystemSaint Lawrence Seaway Actbinational deep waterwayGreat Lakes-St. Lawrence SeawayGreat Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as Duluth, Minnesota at the western end of Lake Superior.wikipedia
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Welland Canal

Welland Ship CanalThird Welland CanalFourth Welland Canal
Legally, the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal.
It forms a key section of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway.

Saint Lawrence River

St. Lawrence RiverSt Lawrence RiverSt. Lawrence
The seaway is named for the Saint Lawrence River, which flows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean.
This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Lake Erie

ErieLake Eirelake
Legally, the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal.
Some outflow occurs via the Welland Canal, part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, which diverts water for ship passages from Port Colborne, Ontario on Lake Erie, to St. Catharines on Lake Ontario, an elevation difference of 326 ft. Lake Erie's environmental health has been an ongoing concern for decades, with issues such as overfishing, pollution, algae blooms, and eutrophication generating headlines.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
Legally, the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal.
Since 1959, the Saint Lawrence Seaway has provided a navigable link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes.

Great Lakes

North American Great LakesGreat Lakethe Great Lakes
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as Duluth, Minnesota at the western end of Lake Superior.
Although the Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway make the Great Lakes accessible to ocean-going vessels, shifts in shipping to wider ocean-going container ships—which do not fit through the locks on these routes—have limited container shipping on the lakes.

Montreal

Montreal, QuebecMontréalMontreal, Canada
Legally, the seaway extends from Montreal, Quebec, to Lake Erie and includes the Welland Canal.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal.

Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation

St. Lawrence Seaway Development CorporationSaint Lawrence Seaway Act
A number of the locks are managed by the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation in Canada, and others in the United States by the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation; the two bodies together advertise the seaway as part of "Highway H 2 O".
The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) is the agency of the United States Department of Transportation that operates and maintains the U.S.-owned and operated facilities of the joint United States-Canadian Saint Lawrence Seaway.

St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation

St. Lawrence Seaway AuthoritySaint Lawrence Seaway Management CorporationSaint Lawrence Seaway Authority
A number of the locks are managed by the St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation in Canada, and others in the United States by the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation; the two bodies together advertise the seaway as part of "Highway H 2 O".
As dictated by the 1998 Canada Marine Act, the Corporation manages and operates the assets of the Crown entrusted to St. Lawrence Seaway, which consists of lands, Canals and 13 of the 15 locks between Montreal and Lake Erie, for the government under a long-term agreement with Transport Canada".

International Joint Commission

Lake Superior Board of Control International Joint Commission of the United States and CanadaInternational Joint Commission for the Great Lakes
By the early 1920s, both The Wooten-Bowden Report and the International Joint Commission recommended the project.
It was consulted for decades during the development of the St. Lawrence Seaway, and the many bridges that have been constructed as international border crossings over the St. Lawrence River and other waterways.

Transport Canada

Department of TransportCanadian Department of TransportTransport
The section of the river from Montreal to the Atlantic is under Canadian jurisdiction, regulated by the offices of Transport Canada in the Port of Quebec.
Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway, airports and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.

Lake Superior

SuperiorGitche GumeeLakehead
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as Duluth, Minnesota at the western end of Lake Superior.
Duluth-Superior, at the western end of Lake Superior, is the most inland point on the St. Lawrence Seaway and the most inland port in the world.

Duluth, Minnesota

DuluthDuluth, MNDuluth, United States
The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as Duluth, Minnesota at the western end of Lake Superior.
Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2300 mi away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Canada Marine Act

Port Authority
Under the Canada Marine Act (1998), the Canadian portions of the seaway were set up with a non-profit corporate structure; this legislation also introduced changes to federal ports.
The Canada Marine Act (Loi maritime du Canada), (the Act) passed in 1998 under the stewardship of David Collenette, Minister of Transport, was an act intended to modernize Canada's most important ports, and make "the system of Canadian ports competitive, efficient and commercially oriented, providing for the establishing of port authorities and the divesting of certain harbours and ports, for the commercialization of the St. Lawrence Seaway and ferry services and other matters related to maritime trade and transport and amending the Pilotage Act and amending and repealing other Acts as a consequence."

Moses-Saunders Power Dam

R. H. Saunders StationR.H. Saunders – St. Lawrence StationSt. Lawrence-FDR Power Project
Fueled by this support, Saint Laurent's administration decided during 1951 and 1952 to construct the waterway alone, combined with the Moses-Saunders Power Dam.
Constructed between 1954 and 1958, the dam created Lake St. Lawrence and is part of a larger project called the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

United States Army Corps of Engineers

U.S. Army Corps of EngineersArmy Corps of EngineersCorps of Engineers
In May 1957, the Connecting Channels Project was begun by the United States Army Corps of Engineers.

Saint-Lambert, Quebec

Saint-LambertSt. LambertSt. Lambert, Quebec
Queen Elizabeth II and American President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally opened the seaway with a short cruise aboard the royal yacht after addressing crowds in Saint-Lambert, Quebec.
In the 1950s, the development of Saint-Lambert was enhanced with the building of the St. Lambert Locks in the St. Lawrence Seaway, to bypass the smaller Lachine Canal, and this became the most easterly lock in the Seaway.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.

Lake freighter

Great Lakes freighterlakerlakers
Large vessels of the lake freighter fleet are built on the lakes and cannot travel downstream beyond the Welland Canal.
By way of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, smaller lakers have access to the Atlantic Ocean, and some ocean-going vessels have access to the lakes.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
Although the Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was reluctant to proceed, in part because of opposition to the project in Quebec, in 1932 he and the U.S. representative signed a treaty of intent.
Instead he paid more attention to the industrial regions and the needs of Ontario and Quebec, particularly with respect to the proposed St. Lawrence Seaway project with the United States.

Beauharnois, Quebec

BeauharnoisMelochevilleBeauharnois, Québec
It is home to the Beauharnois Hydroelectric Power Station, as well as the Beauharnois Lock of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Seawaymax

freightersmaximum permissible length of a ship in this canalmaximum size
The seaway locks permit passage of a ship 740 ft long by 78 ft feet wide (the Seawaymax limit).
The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the inland Great Lakes of North America with the Atlantic Ocean.

Eisenhower Lock

Eisenhower
The Eisenhower Lock is one of the seven canal locks on the St Lawrence River leg of the St Lawrence Seaway.

Massena, New York

MassenaTown of MassenaMassena (town), New York
To create a navigable channel through the Long Sault rapids and to allow hydroelectric stations to be established immediately upriver from Cornwall, Ontario, and Massena, New York, Lake St. Lawrence was created behind a dam.
The modern town is involved in power production, aluminum production at ALCOA, and the commerce of the St. Lawrence Seaway.

Lake Ontario

OntariolakeLakes Ontario
The seaway is named for the Saint Lawrence River, which flows from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Great Lakes Waterway connects the lake sidestream to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway, and upstream to the other rivers in the chain via the Welland Canal and to Lake Erie.

Cornwall, Ontario

CornwallCornwall, ONCity of Cornwall
To create a navigable channel through the Long Sault rapids and to allow hydroelectric stations to be established immediately upriver from Cornwall, Ontario, and Massena, New York, Lake St. Lawrence was created behind a dam.
Now known as the Lost Villages, the communities were permanently flooded in 1958 during the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway as the massive Moses-Saunders Power Dam at the western end of the city required a reservoir.