Saint Petersburg

The Bronze Horseman, monument to Peter the Great
Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo
Map of Saint Petersburg, 1744
Street leading to St. Nicholas Naval Cathedral
Palace Square backed by the General staff arch and building; as the main square of the Russian Empire, it was the setting of many events of historic significance.
Decembrist revolt at the Senate Square, 26 December 1825
Bolsheviks celebrating 1 May near the Winter Palace half a year after taking power, 1918
Leningrad in 1935
Citizens of Leningrad during the 872-day siege, in which more than one million civilians died, mostly from starvation. Nevsky Prospect
View of Lermontovski Prospekt, Egyptian Bridge and the Fontanka River, 1972
Griboedov Canal and the Church of the Saviour on Blood, 1991
View of the city from the Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Moyka River, flowing through Central Saint Petersburg
Satellite image of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs
While not originally named for Tsar Peter the Great, during World War I the city was changed from the Germanic "Peterburg" to "Petrograd" in his honour.
From 1924 to 1991 the city was known as 'Leningrad'. This is a picture of the Saint Petersburg port entrance with an old 'Ленинград' (Leningrad) sign.
People walking on the main street of Saint Petersburg, Nevsky Prospekt
The city assembly meets in the Mariinsky Palace.
The Smolny Institute, seat of the governor
The Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum is a major Russian investment forum
Admiralty Shipyard
Power Machines plant building on Sverdlovskaya embankment in Saint Petersburg
Lakhta Center, the tallest building in Europe
Kazan Cathedral, an example of Neoclassical architecture
Saint Isaac's Square
Aerial view of Peter and Paul Fortress
Nevsky Prospekt
Palace Square during Christmas
Church of the Savior on Blood, seen from Griboyedov Canal
Smolny Convent, an example of Baroque architecture
Aerial view of Peterhof Palace
The "Temple of Friendship" in Pavlovsk Park
The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace
The Bolshoi Zal (Grand Hall) of Saint Petersburg Philharmonia
The main auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre
Scarlet Sails celebration on the Neva River
The Alexandrinsky Theatre
The Pushkin House
Konstantin Khabensky, known for his roles in Night Watch, Day Watch and Admiral, is a native of Saint Petersburg.
Gazprom Arena on Krestovsky Island
A section of the Western High-Speed Diameter
Tram passing by Kronverksy Avenue
Narvskaya station of the Saint Petersburg Metro, opened in 1955
Trolleybus on Nevsky Prospekt
Hydrofoil docking in Saint Petersburg upon arrival from Peterhof Palace (2008)
The Sapsan high-speed train runs between Saint Petersburg and Moscow.
Pulkovo International Airport
The Trinity Bridge i s a landmark of Art Nouveau design.
Lakhta Center, the tallest building in Europe
The Field of Mars.
Grand Peterhof Palace and the Grand Cascade
Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns.
The main auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre
Panorama of Stalls and Boxes at the Main Mariinsky Theatre.
The Alexandrinsky Theatre
alt=|Cameron gallery in Catherine park of Tsarskoe Selo.
alt=|Grotto pavilion in Catherine park of Tsarskoe Selo
alt=|The Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo.
alt=|Grand Menshikov Palace.
alt=|The State Hermitage Museum is the largest art museum in the world by gallery space.
alt=|The State Russian Museum is the world's largest depository of Russian fine art.
alt=|The Russian Museum of Ethnography is one of the largest ethnographic museums in the world.<ref>{{Cite web |title=“The Heart of Yugra” exhibition at the Russian Museum of Ethnography |url= |access-date=2022-06-18 |}}</ref>

Second-largest city in Russia.

- Saint Petersburg

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National Library of Russia

The 18th-century building of the library
faces Nevsky Prospekt
The 18th-century building of the library
faces Nevsky Prospekt
The Neoclassical building on the Nevsky Avenue.
The new building on the Moskovsky Avenue
St. Petersburg Bede (746)
Trebizond Gospel (10th century)
Codex Zographensis (c. 1000)
Leningrad Codex (c. 1008)
Ostromir Gospel (1056)
Spiridon Psalter (1397)
Guyart de Moulin's Bible Historiale (1350s)
Simon Marmion's Grandes Chroniques de France (1450s)
Breviary of Mary Stuart (1490s)
Lancelot du Lac (c. 1500)

The National Library of Russia (NLR, Российская национальная библиотека), located in Saint Petersburg, is the first national public library in Russia.

Peter the Great

Monarch of the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V.

Portrait by Jean-Marc Nattier, after 1717
Peter the Great as a child
The Tsardom of Russia, c. 1700
Capture of Azov, 1696, by Robert Ker Porter
Portrait of Peter I by Godfrey Kneller, 1698. This portrait was Peter's gift to the King of England.
Peter on board of his yacht en route to the Peter and Paul
Statue of Peter in Rotterdam
Peter I of Russia pacifies his marauding troops after retaking Narva in 1704, by Nikolay Sauerweid, 1859
Peter the Great Meditating the Idea of Building St Petersburg at the Shore of the Baltic Sea, by Alexandre Benois, 1916
Peter I in the Battle of Poltava, a mosaic by Mikhail Lomonosov
Peter I, by Carel de Moor, 1717
Diamond order of Peter the Great
Monument to Peter the Great in St. Petersburg
Portrait of Peter by Maria Giovanna Clementi
Peter the Great on his deathbed, by Nikitin
The 1782 statue of Peter I in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Bronze Horseman
Peter I interrogating his son Alexei, a painting by Nikolai Ge (1871)
Portrait of Peter the Great
Tomb of Peter the Great in Peter and Paul Fortress

He adopted the title of Emperor in place of the old title of Tsar in 1721, and founded and developed the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1918.

October Revolution

Revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was a key moment in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923.

The Winter Palace of Petrograd one day after the insurrection, 8 November
Red Guard unit of the Vulkan factory in Petrograd, October 1917
Bolshevik (1920) by Boris Kustodiev
The New York Times headline from 9 November 1917
A scene from the July Days. The army has just opened fire on street protesters.
Cruiser Aurora
Forward gun of Aurora that fired the signal shot
Petrograd Milrevcom proclamation about the deposing of the Russian Provisional Government
The elections to the Constituent Assembly took place in November 1917. The Bolsheviks won 24% of the vote.
The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. The Tauride Palace is locked and guarded by Trotsky, Sverdlov, Zinoviev and Lashevich.
European theatre of the Russian Civil War in 1918
Anniversary of October Revolution in Riga, Soviet Union in 1988
The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. The Tauride Palace is locked and guarded by Trotsky, Sverdlov, Zinoviev and Lashevich.
European theatre of the Russian Civil War in 1918
Anniversary of October Revolution in Riga, Soviet Union in 1988

It took place through an armed insurrection in Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) on.

Hermitage Museum

View of (from left) the Hermitage Theatre, Old Hermitage, and Small Hermitage
View of (from left) the Hermitage Theatre, Old Hermitage, and Small Hermitage
The Hermitage Museum complex. From left to right: Hermitage Theatre – Old Hermitage – Small Hermitage – Winter Palace (the "New Hermitage" is situated behind the Old Hermitage)
Egyptian Hall
The Pavilion Hall
The Small Italian Skylight Room
The Three Graces, 1813–1816, by Canova
The Rubens Room
Garden at Bordighera, Impression of Morning, 1884, Claude Monet
Portrait of Nikolay Borisovich Yusupov by Italian Vincenzo Petrocelli, 1851
Empress Catherine II
View of the Palace Embankment by Karl Beggrov, 1826. The Old Hermitage is in the middle of the painting.
Portico with atlantes, historical entrance
The Raphael Loggias
A room in the Winter Palace
Soviet ski troops by the portico during the Siege of Leningrad
Deer golden plaque from Krasnodar, beginning of 6th century BC
One of the Hermitage cats
Ancient Egyptian: Limestone stele of a chief potter (18th century BC)
Ancient Near East: Urartu deity (7th–5th century BC)
Ancient Greek: Red-figure vase (5th century BC)
Ancient Steppes: Pazyryk horseman (3rd century BC)
Hellenistic: Gonzaga Cameo (3rd century BC)
Ancient Roman: Bust of Lucius Verus (160–170)
Indian: statue of Buddha (2nd–3rd century)
Gothic: Anjou Legendarium (1330)
Early Renaissance: Madonna Litta by Leonardo da Vinci (c. 1490)
High Renaissance: Penitent Magdalene by Titian (1565)
Mannerism: Saint Peter and Saint Paul by El Greco (1592)
Italian Baroque: The Lute Player by Caravaggio (1596)
Spanish Baroque: The Lunch by Diego Velázquez (1617)
Flemish Baroque: Self-Portrait by Anthony van Dyck (1622–1623)
Dutch Baroque: Danaë by Rembrandt (1636)
Classicism: Tancred and Herminia by Nicolas Poussin (1649)
English: Woman in Blue by Thomas Gainsborough (c. 1770s)
Rococo: The Stolen Kiss by Jean-Honoré Fragonard (c. 1780)
Neoclassicism: Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss by Antonio Canova (1800–1803)
Romanticism: Portrait of Antonia Zarate by Francisco Goya (1810)
Persian: Portrait of Fath Ali Shah (1813–1814)
Impressionism: Woman in the Garden by Claude Monet (1867)
Post-Impressionism: White House at Night by Vincent van Gogh (1890)
Post-Impressionism: The Overture to Tannhauser: The Artist's Mother and Sister by Paul Cézanne (1868)
Picasso's Rose Period: Femme au café (Absinthe Drinker) by Pablo Picasso (1901–02)
Proto-Cubism: Dryad, by Pablo Picasso (1908)
Fauvism: The Dance by Henri Matisse (1910)
Maratha India: A Maratha Armor and Helmet
Abstract: Composition VI by Wassily Kandinsky (1913)
The Three Graces, 1813–1816, by Canova

The State Hermitage Museum is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Supreme Court of Russia

Court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.

Emblem of the Supreme Court

According to Article 22 of the Federal Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation", the permanent residence of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the city of Saint Petersburg.

Russian Empire

Empire that extended across Eurasia from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War.

A painting depicting the Battle of Narva (1700) in the Great Northern War
Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in 1721 and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. (Painting made after 1717.)
Empress Catherine the Great, who reigned from 1762 to 1796, continued the empire's expansion and modernization. Considering herself an enlightened absolutist, she played a key role in the Russian Enlightenment. (Painted in the 1780s.)
Catherine II Sestroretsk Rouble (1771) is made of solid copper measuring 77 mm (diameter), 26 mm (thickness), and weighs 1.022 kg.
An 1843 painting imagining Russian general Pyotr Bagration, giving orders during the Battle of Borodino (1812) while wounded
The Imperial Standard of the Tsar between from 1858 to 1917. Previous variations of the black eagle on gold background were used as far back as Peter the Great's time.
Franz Roubaud's 1893 painting of the Erivan Fortress siege in 1827 by the Russian forces under leadership of Ivan Paskevich during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War
Russian troops taking Samarkand (8 June 1868)
Russian troops entering Khiva in 1873
Capturing of the Ottoman Turkish redoubt during the Siege of Plevna (1877)
Russian troops fighting against Ottoman troops at the Battle of Shipka Pass (1877)
A scene from the First Russian Revolution, by Ilya Repin
Russian soldiers in combat against Japanese at Mukden (inside China), during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow in 1917
Map of the Russian Empire in 1912
Ethnic map of European Russia before World War I
Map of governorates of the western Russian Empire in 1910
Map showing subdivisions of the Russian Empire in 1914
1814 artwork depicting the Russian warship Neva and the Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak town), Kodiak Island
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, reigning from 1894 to 1917.
This painting from circa 1847 depicts the building on Palace Square opposite the Winter Palace, which was the headquarters of the Army General Staff. Today, it houses the headquarters of the Western Military District/Joint Strategic Command West.
The Catherine Palace, located at Tsarskoe Selo, was the summer residence of the imperial family. It is named after Empress Catherine I, who reigned from 1725 to 1727. (Watercolor painting from the 19th century.)
The Senate and Synod headquarters – today the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on Senate Square in Saint Petersburg
Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778–82) as seen in 2015
The Moscow City Duma circa 1900 (colorized photograph)
100 ruble banknote (1910)
Russian and US equities, 1865 to 1917
Watercolor-tinted lithgraph, from the 1840s, depicting the arrival of the first Tsarskoye Selo Railway train at Tsarskoye Selo from St. Petersburg on 30 October 1837.
The Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg was constructed between 1801 and 1811, and prior to the construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral was the main Orthodox Church in Imperial Russia.
Map of subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897)
Contemporary painting of the procession of Emperor Alexander II into Dormition Cathedral in Moscow during his coronation in 1856
This 1892 painting imagines a scene of Russian troops forming a bridge with their bodies, moving equipment to prepare for invading Persian forces during the Russo-Persian War (1804–13), which occurred contemporaneously with the French invasion of Russia.
1892 painting depicting Imperial Russian Navy Brig "Mercury" Attacked by Two Turkish Ships in a scene from the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), by Ivan Aivazovsky
1856 painting imagining the announcement of the coronation of Alexander II that year.
The 1916 painting Maslenitsa by Boris Kustodiev, depicting a Russian city in winter
Young Russian peasant women in front of a traditional wooden house (c. 1909 to 1915), photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii
Peasants in Russia (photograph taken by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in 1909)

He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of Saint Petersburg, which was largely built according to Western design.

Gulf of Finland

Easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

Satellite image showing the gulf entirely frozen over in January 2003.
Malusi islands in Estonia are one of the main habitats of grey seals in the Gulf of Finland.
Overseas Guests by Nicholas Roerich, 1899
Shipwreck of Kazanets near Osmussaar in Estonia.
Ust-Luga Multimodal Complex on the Soikinsky Peninsula in the Kingiseppsky District of northwestern Russia

It extends between Finland to the north and Estonia to the south, to Saint Petersburg in Russia to the east, where the river Neva drains into it.

List of cities and towns in Russia by population

List of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 at the 2010 census.

Federal subjects of Russia by population density

The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 census as stand-alone localities.

Vladimir Lenin

Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist.

Lenin in 1920
Lenin's childhood home in Simbirsk
An image of Lenin (left) at the age of three
Lenin was influenced by the works of Karl Marx.
Lenin (seated centre) with other members of the League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class in 1897
Lenin in 1916, while in Switzerland
Lenin undertook research at the British Museum in London.
Lenin's travel route from Zurich to St. Petersburg, named Petrograd at the time, in April 1917, including the ride in a sealed train on German territory
The engine that pulled the train on which Lenin arrived at Petrograd's Finland Station in April 1917 was not preserved. So Engine #293, by which Lenin escaped to Finland and then returned to Russia later in the year, serves as the permanent exhibit, installed at a platform on the station.
Painting of Lenin in front of the Smolny Institute by Isaak Brodsky
The Moscow Kremlin, which Lenin moved into in 1918
Bolshevik political cartoon poster from 1920, showing Lenin sweeping away monarchs, clergy, and capitalists; the caption reads, "Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth"
Signing of the armistice between Russia and Germany on 15 December 1917
Lenin with his wife and sister in a car after watching a Red Army parade at Khodynka Field in Moscow, May Day 1918
A White Russian anti-Bolshevik propaganda poster, in which Lenin is depicted in a red robe, aiding other Bolsheviks in sacrificing Russia to a statue of Marx (c. undefined 1918–1919)
Photograph of Lenin on 1 May 1919, taken by Grigori Petrovich Goldstein
Victims of the famine in Buzuluk, Volga region, next to Saratov
Lenin in 1923, in a wheelchair
Lenin spent his final years largely at the Gorki mansion.
Lenin's funeral, painted by Isaac Brodsky, 1925
Lenin speaking in 1919
The 1985 post stamp for 115th birth anniversary of Lenin. Portrait of Lenin (based on a 1900 photography of Y. Mebius in Moscow) with the Tampere Lenin Museum.
Statue of Lenin erected by the East German Marxist–Leninist government at Leninplatz in East Berlin, East Germany (removed in 1992)
Lenin's Mausoleum in front of the Kremlin, 2007
Commemorative one rouble coin minted in 1970 in honour of Lenin's centenary
Detail of Man, Controller of the Universe, fresco at Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City showing Vladimir Lenin

He moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior Marxist activist.

Peter and Paul Fortress

An aerial view of the fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress
Palace Bridge and 'Peter and Paul' fortress
Midday cannon shot on February 8, 2018 (dedicated to the birthday of St. Petersburg University, Prof. N. Kuznetsov)
Peter and Paul Fortress. View across the Neva River
Entrance from Ioannovsky Bridge
Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg
View of the fortress and cathedral from the Neva
Peter and Paul Fortress at sunset

The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.