Sakoku

national isolation policynational seclusionnational seclusion policyseclusionisolating the countrynational isolationmaritime restrictionsisolationist policyclosed countryisolation policy
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate (aka Bakufu) under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.wikipedia
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Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate (aka Bakufu) under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.
Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West.

Bakumatsu

opening of Japanlate Tokugawa shogunateJapan
The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties.
Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and changed from a feudal Tokugawa shogunate to the pre-modern empire of the Meiji government.

Perry Expedition

expedition to JapanexpeditionBlack Ships
The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties.
Perry’s primary goal was to force an end to Japan’s 220-year-old policy of isolation and to open Japanese ports to American trade, through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary.

Rangaku

Western learningDutch studiesWestern studies
Western scientific, technical and medical innovations did flow into Japan through Rangaku ("Dutch learning").
Rangaku (Kyūjitai: undefined/Shinjitai: undefined, literally "Dutch learning", and by extension "Western learning") is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation (sakoku).

Nagasaki Prefecture

NagasakiNagasaki PrefecturalNagasaki, Japan
Trade with Korea was limited to the Tsushima Domain (today part of Nagasaki Prefecture).
After being given free rein in Oda Nobunaga's period, the missionaries were forced out little by little, until finally, in the Tokugawa era, Christianity was banned under the Sakoku national isolation policy: Japanese foreign trade was restricted to Chinese and Dutch traders based at Dejima in Nagasaki.

Tokugawa shogunate

TokugawabakufuJapan
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate (aka Bakufu) under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties. In 1842, following the news of the defeat of China in the Opium War and internal criticism following the Morrison Incident, the Bakufu responded favourably to foreign demands for the right to refuel in Japan by suspending the order to execute foreigners and adopting the "Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water" (Shinsui kyuyorei ja:薪水給与令).
After 1635 and the introduction of Seclusion laws, inbound ships were only allowed from China, Korea, and the Netherlands.

Haijin

sea banhai jinmaritime prohibition
Thus, it has become increasingly common in scholarship in recent decades to refer to the foreign relations policy of the period not as sakoku, implying a totally secluded, isolated, and "closed" country, but by the term kaikin (海禁, "maritime prohibitions") used in documents at the time, and derived from the similar Chinese concept haijin.
The policy was also mimicked by both Tokugawa Japan (as the Sakoku) and Joseon Korea, which became known as the "Hermit Kingdom", before they were opened militarily in 1853 and 1876.

Satsuma Domain

SatsumaSatsuma hanSatsuma-Han
Trade with the Ainu people was limited to the Matsumae Domain in Hokkaidō, and trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom took place in Satsuma Domain (present-day Kagoshima Prefecture).
As strict maritime prohibitions were imposed upon much of Japan beginning in the 1630s, Satsuma's ability to enjoy a trade in Chinese goods, and information, via Ryukyu, provided it a distinct and important, if not entirely unique, role in the overall economy and politics of the Tokugawa state.

Tokugawa Iemitsu

IemitsuIemitsu TokugawaIyemitsu
The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties.
Japan in this period has often been described as "closed", or under sakoku (鎖国, "chained country"), but since the 1980s, if not earlier, scholars have argued for the use of terms such as "maritime restrictions" or kaikin (海禁, "maritime restrictions"), emphasizing the fact that Japan was not "closed" to the outside world, but was in fact very actively engaged with the outside world, albeit through a limited set of avenues.

Shimabara Rebellion

Shimabaraa rebellion blamed on the Christian influencean armed rebellion
The direct trigger which is said to have spurred the imposition of sakoku was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637–38, an uprising of 40,000 mostly Christian peasants.
Japan's national seclusion policy was tightened and official persecution of Christianity continued until the 1850s.

Nagasaki

Nagasaki, JapanNagasaki CityCity of Nagasaki
The policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. In 1848, Captain James Glynn sailed to Nagasaki, leading at last to the first successful negotiation by an American with "Closed Country" Japan. James Glynn recommended to the United States Congress that negotiations to open Japan should be backed up by a demonstration of force, thus paving the way to Perry's expedition.
The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutchDutch VOC
The largest was the private Chinese trade at Nagasaki (who also traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom), where the Dutch East India Company was also permitted to operate.
Rangaku (literally 'Dutch Learning', and by extension 'Western Learning') is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation (sakoku).

Black Ships

black shipforeign warshipskurofune
These ships became known as the kurofune, the Black Ships.
In 1639, after suppressing a rebellion blamed on the Christian influence, the ruling Tokugawa shogunate retreated into an isolationist policy, the Sakoku.

Isolationism

isolationistisolationisolationists
Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate (aka Bakufu) under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. Thus, it has become increasingly common in scholarship in recent decades to refer to the foreign relations policy of the period not as sakoku, implying a totally secluded, isolated, and "closed" country, but by the term kaikin (海禁, "maritime prohibitions") used in documents at the time, and derived from the similar Chinese concept haijin.
Sakoku

Edo period

Edo-periodEdoTokugawa
Together with the brisk trade between Tsushima and Korea, as well as the presence of Japanese in Pusan, Japan was able to access Chinese cultural, intellectual and technological developments throughout the Edo period.
Besides small trade of some outer daimyō with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan's main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku to Nagasaki.

Dejima

Dutch settlement at Nagasakiforeign trade portDejima Dutch Trading Post
The policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki.
Sakoku

Matthew C. Perry

Matthew PerryCommodore PerryCommodore Matthew Perry
The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties. The policies associated with sakoku ended with the Convention of Kanagawa in response to demands made by Commodore Perry.
The Japanese were forewarned by the Dutch of Perry’s voyage, but were unwilling to change their 250-year-old policy of national seclusion.

Engelbert Kaempfer

KaempferEngelbert KämpferKaempf.
Shizuki invented the word while translating the works of the 17th-century German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer concerning Japan.
Sakoku

Convention of Kanagawa

Treaty of Kanagawaopening of JapanTreaty
The policies associated with sakoku ended with the Convention of Kanagawa in response to demands made by Commodore Perry.
Signed under threat of force, it effectively meant the end of Japan's 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku) by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American vessels.

Cyprus mutiny

Cyprus'' mutinyattacked their guards and took control of the brigsuccessfully mutinied against their masters
In 1830, the brig "Cyprus", a ship of Australian convicts who had successfully mutinied against their masters and set sail for Canton, China, arrived on the coast of Shinkoku near the town of Mugi in Tokushima Prefecture. The mutineers were desperately low on water, firewood, and supplies, but were attacked and sent away by the Japanese. This was the first time an Australian ship ever visited Japan.
On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so.

James Glynn

In 1848, Captain James Glynn sailed to Nagasaki, leading at last to the first successful negotiation by an American with "Closed Country" Japan. James Glynn recommended to the United States Congress that negotiations to open Japan should be backed up by a demonstration of force, thus paving the way to Perry's expedition.
James Glynn (1800–1871) was a U.S. Navy officer who in 1848 distinguished himself by being the first American to negotiate successfully with the Japanese during the "Closed Country" period.

Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty

The United Kingdom signed the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty at the end of 1854.
Signed on October 14, 1854, it paralleled the Convention of Kanagawa, a similar agreement between Japan and the United States six months earlier which effectively ended Japan's 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku). As a result of the treaty, the ports of Nagasaki and Hakodate were opened to British vessels, and Britain was granted most favored nation status with other western powers.

Treaty of Shimoda

Shimoda agreement
His efforts culminated in the signing of the Treaty of Shimoda in February 1855.
Following shortly after the Convention of Kanagawa signed between Japan and the United States, it effectively meant the end of Japan’s 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku), by opening the ports of Nagasaki, Shimoda and Hakodate to Russian vessels and established the position of Russian consuls in Japan and defined the borders between Japan and Russia.

Martin Spangberg

In 1738, a Russian naval squadron (including Martin Spangberg) visited the island of Honshu. The Russians landed in a scenic area which is now part of the Rikuchu Kaigan National Park. Despite the prevalent seclusion policy, the sailors were treated with politeness if not friendliness.
Despite the prevalent policy of sakoku, the sailors were treated with politeness if not friendliness.

Morrison incident

MorrisonMorrison'' Incident
In 1842, following the news of the defeat of China in the Opium War and internal criticism following the Morrison Incident, the Bakufu responded favourably to foreign demands for the right to refuel in Japan by suspending the order to execute foreigners and adopting the "Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water" (Shinsui kyuyorei ja:薪水給与令).
The Morrison incident of 1837 occurred when the American merchant ship, Morrison headed by Charles W. King, was driven away from "sakoku" (isolationist) Japan by cannon fire.