Salvia divinorum

Mazatec people performing a ritual dance in Huautla de Jimenez
Jean Basset Johnson, who studied Mazatec shamanism during the 1930s.
Flowering Salvia divinorum
Flower detail, showing violet calyx and white corolla
Three Salvia divinorum plants
Salvinorin A
0.5 g. of 25x S. divinorum extract.
Salvia extract as it is commonly sold in stores where it is legal.

Plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking, or as a tea.

- Salvia divinorum

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Lamiaceae

The Lamiaceae

Lamium purpureum, showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower
Tetradenia riparia
Salvia jurisicii
Leucas aspera in Hyderabad, India
Orthosiphon thymiflorus flower
Oregano

Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs like basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla, as well as other medicinal herbs such as catnip, salvia, bee balm, wild dagga, and oriental motherwort.

Diterpene

Diterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of four isoprene units, often with the molecular formula C20H32.

Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, the starting material for the biosynthesis of diterpenes
Taxadiene: a tricyclic diterpene

Salvia divinorum yields Salvinorin A, a psychotropic drug

Κ-opioid receptor

G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.

22-Thiocyanatosalvinorin A (RB-64) is a functionally-selective κ-opioid receptor agonist.

Centrally active KOR agonists have hallucinogenic or dissociative effects, as exemplified by salvinorin A (the active constituent in Salvia divinorum).

Terpenoid

The terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from the 5-carbon compound isoprene, and the isoprene polymers called terpenes.

Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid anticancer drug.
Terpineols are monoterpenoids.
thumb|Humulones are classified as sesquiterpenoids.
Retinol is a diterpenoid.
Hinokitiol is a monoterpenoid, a tropolone derivative.
Limonin, a common limonoid, is a triterpenoid.
Geosmin is a sesquiterpenoid.

Well-known terpenoids include citral, menthol, camphor, salvinorin A in the plant Salvia divinorum, the cannabinoids found in cannabis,and ginkgolide and bilobalide found in Ginkgo biloba.

Salvinorin A

Salvinorin A
Synthesis of IPP and DMAPP via 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate Pathway
Biosynthesis of Salvinorin A

Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum.

Smoking

Practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke is typically breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

A woman smoking a tobacco cigarette, the most common method of smoking
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
A woman smoking crack cocaine
Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 1500
A Persian girl smoking by Muhammad Qasim, 17th century.
Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640
An illustration of an opium den on the cover of Le Petit Journal, 5 July 1903
A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action (US cigarette consumption per person blue, male lung cancer rate green)
An elaborately decorated pipe
A diagram of the human body showing some of the diseases caused by smoking
A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake
Sigmund Freud, whose doctor assisted with his suicide because of oral cancer caused by smoking
Prevalence of daily smoking in 2012
The share adults who smoke any tobacco product on a daily or non-daily basis in 2016.
An Apothecary Smoking in an Interior by Adriaen van Ostade, oil on panel, 1646
Skull with a Burning Cigarette by Vincent van Gogh, oil on canvas, 1885
Film star and iconic smoker Humphrey Bogart
The cover of My Lady Nicotine: A Study in Smoke (1896) by J.M. Barrie, otherwise best known for his play Peter Pan
Share of deaths from smoking, 2017<ref>{{cite web |title=Share of deaths from smoking |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/share-deaths-smoking |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
The number of deaths attributed to smoking per 100,000 people in 2017<ref>{{cite web |title=Death rate from smoking |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/death-rate-smoking?tab=map |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
Average price of a pack of 20 cigarettes, measured in international dollars in 2014.<ref>{{cite web |title=Average price of a pack of cigarettes |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/average-price-of-a-pack-of-cigarettes |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
Taxes as a share of cigarette price, 2014<ref>{{cite web |title=Taxes as a share of cigarette price |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/taxes-as-share-of-cigarette-price |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
Types of bans on tobacco advertising, 2014<ref>{{cite web |title=Enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/enforcement-of-bans-on-tobacco-advertising |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
Support to help quit tobacco use, 2014<ref>{{cite web |title=Support to help quit tobacco use |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/support-to-help-to-quit-tobacco-use |website=Our World in Data |access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>

Along with a smaller number of psychedelic drugs such as Changa, DMT, 5-Meo-DMT, and Salvia divinorum.

Shamanism

Religious practice that involves a practitioner interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness, such as trance.

The earliest known depiction of a Siberian shaman, by the Dutch Nicolaes Witsen, 17th century. Witsen called him a "priest of the Devil" and drew clawed feet for the supposed demonic qualities.
A shaman, probably Khakas, Russian Empire, 1908
A tableau presenting figures of various cultures filling in mediator-like roles, often being termed as "shaman" in the literature. The tableau presents the diversity of this concept.
Flowering San Pedro, an entheogenic cactus that has been used for over 3,000 years. Today the vast majority of extracted mescaline is from columnar cacti, not vulnerable peyote.
Goldes shaman priest in his regalia
South Moluccan shaman in an exorcism ritual involving children, Buru, Indonesia (1920)
A shaman of the Itneg people in the Philippines renewing an offering to the spirit (anito) of a warrior's shield (kalasag) (1922)
Sámi ''noaidi with his drum
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl, 2005. Attempts are being made to preserve and revitalize Tuvan shamanism: former authentic shamans have begun to practice again, and young apprentices are being educated in an organized way.
Map of shamanism across the world

Examples of substances used by some cultures as entheogens include: peyote, psilocybin and Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) mushrooms, uncured tobacco, cannabis, ayahuasca, Salvia divinorum, and iboga.

Mazatec

Indigenous people of Mexico who inhabit the Sierra Mazateca in the state of Oaxaca and some communities in the adjacent states of Puebla and Veracruz.

Plants and fungi used for this purpose include psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive morning glory seeds (from species such as Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa), and perhaps most significant to the Mazatecs, Salvia divinorum.

Near-death experience

Profound personal experience associated with death or impending death which researchers claim share similar characteristics.

Ascent of the Blessed by Hieronymus Bosch is associated by some NDE researchers with aspects of the NDE.
Entering darkness, seeing the light
Pim van Lommel
Animation of the human left temporal lobe

A 2019 large-scale study found that ketamine, Salvia divinorum, and DMT (and other classical psychedelic substances) are linked to near-death experiences.

Hallucinogen

Hallucinogens are a large and diverse class of psychoactive drugs that can produce altered states of consciousness characterized by substantial alterations in thought, mood, and perception.

One "Blotter" sheet of 900 LSD doses.
Salvia divinorum
Datura innoxia in flower.
Attractive but highly toxic berry of Atropa belladonna
Flowers and foliage of Nicotiana tabacum, the cultivated tobacco.
Single fruiting body of Amanita muscaria
Myristica fragrans fruit, halved, showing within the red seed (nutmeg) enclosed in its brown aril (mace).

Opioidergics (sometimes regarded as atypical psychedelics) (κ-Opioid receptor agonists or atypical dissociatives) such as salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum and pentazocine