Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin SamiS.SamiSami BeyŞemseddin SamiŞemseddin Sami (Frashëri)Şemseddin Sami Frashëri
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim.wikipedia
159 Related Articles

Naim Frashëri

NaimNaim FrasheriNaim bey Frashëri
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim. Frashëri also founded and headed in Istanbul the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings in October 1879, where Albanian scholastic books and texts were compiled by him and his brother Naim.
Naim and his brothers Abdyl and Sami were born and raised in the village of Frashër at the southern slopes of the Tomorr Mountains.

Abdyl Frashëri

AbdylAbdyl FrasheriAbdul
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim.
Being the eldest brother of Naim Frashëri and Sami Frashëri, Abdyl Frashëri spent his youth to age 18 in his home village and eventually moved to Yannina where he lived for more than 20 years.

Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim.
A number of thoroughly intellectual Albanians, among them Naum Veqilharxhi, Girolamo de Rada, Dora d'Istria, Thimi Mitko, Naim and Sami Frashëri, made a conscious effort to awaken feelings of pride and unity among their people by working to develop Albanian literature that would call to mind the rich history and hopes for a more decent future.

Albanian alphabet

AlbanianArvanitic alphabetAlbanian inscriptions
In this way, beginning with a demand for autonomy and struggle for their own alphabet and education, Frashëri helped the Albanian National Movement develop its claim for independence.
The turning point was the aftermath of the League of Prizren (1878) events when in 1879 Sami Frashëri and Naim Frashëri formed the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings.

Turkish literature

TurkishliteratureOttoman literature
He gained a place in Ottoman literature as a talented author under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi and contributed to the Ottoman Turkish language reforms.
What is widely recognized as the first Turkish novel, Taaşuk-u Tal'at ve Fitnat (تعشق طلعت و فطنت; "Tal'at and Fitnat in Love") by Şemsettin Sami (1850–1904), was published just ten years later, in 1872.

Frashër

FrasherFrashër region
Frashëri was one of the sons of an impoverished Bey from Frashër (Fraşer during the Ottoman rule) in the District of Përmet.

Mësonjëtorja

Albanian school in Korçëboys school in KorçëFirst Albanian School of Korçë
By 1901 his play was translated into Albanian by close friend Abdul Ypi and published in Sofia by Kristo Luarasi while it was part of the curriculum of the Albanian school in Korçë until its closure in 1902.
In 1885, Naim Frashëri, a government civil servant in the education ministry, Sami Frashëri and along with other influential Albanians involved in the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings managed to get permission from the sultan for the opening of a private Albanian boys elementary school in Korçë.

Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights

Central Committee for the Defence of the Rights of the Albanian PeopleCentral Committee for the Protection of the Rights of AlbaniansCentral Committee the defence of the rights of the Albanian people
During the Great Eastern Crisis, the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was founded in 1877 and headed by elder brother Abdyl with Sami, Hasan Tahsini, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto being members.
The Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was formed in the city of Istanbul, Turkey, then Ottoman Empire in December 18, 1877 by an influential group of Albanian intellectuals, patriots, and politicians, such as Hasan Tahsini, Abdyl Frashëri, Vesel Dino, Iljaz Pasha Dibra, Ymer Prizreni, Sami Frashëri, Zija Prishtina, Ahmet Koronica, Mehmet Ali Vrioni, Seid Toptani, Mustafa Nuri Vlora, Pashko Vasa, Jani Vreto, Mihal Harito, Pandeli Sotiri, Koto Hoxhi, and Mane Tahiri.

Albanian National Awakening

rilindasAlbanian RenaissanceRilindja
Sami Frashëri (Şemseddin Sami Bey; June 1, 1850 – June 18, 1904) was an Ottoman Albanian writer, philosopher, playwright and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania, together with his two brothers Abdyl and Naim.
In Constantinople in 1879, Sami Frashëri founded a cultural and educational organization, the Society for the Printing of Albanian Writings, whose membership comprised Muslim, Catholic, and Orthodox Albanians.

Kristo Luarasi

By 1901 his play was translated into Albanian by close friend Abdul Ypi and published in Sofia by Kristo Luarasi while it was part of the curriculum of the Albanian school in Korçë until its closure in 1902.
"Mbrothësia" press would publish also 37 books of Albanian literature, including works from Sami Frashëri, Spiro Dine, Mihal Grameno, Papa Kristo Negovani, etc. From 1901 to 1908 together with Shahin Kolonja, Luarasi published in Sofia the journal Drita with some financial support of Austro-Hungary.

Zosimaia School

ZosimeaZosimaiaIoannina
There Sami attended the Greek language Zosimea high school.

Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings

Istanbul CommitteePrint Society of Albanian Letters
Frashëri also founded and headed in Istanbul the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings in October 1879, where Albanian scholastic books and texts were compiled by him and his brother Naim.
The society was founded by elite members of the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights, led by Sami Frashëri, Abdyl Frashëri, and other Rilindas as Jani Vreto, Pandeli Sotiri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa, etc. Its members represented all Albanian territories and all religions.

Jani Vreto

During the Great Eastern Crisis, the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was founded in 1877 and headed by elder brother Abdyl with Sami, Hasan Tahsini, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto being members.
The Committee for Defending Albanian Rights appointed Vreto along with Sami Frashëri, Pashko Vasa and Hasan Tahsini to create an Albanian alphabet.

Vaso Pasha

Pashko VasaAlbanus AlbanoWasa Pasha
During the Great Eastern Crisis, the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was founded in 1877 and headed by elder brother Abdyl with Sami, Hasan Tahsini, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto being members.
Vasa as a member of the Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was appointed along with Sami Frashëri, Jani Vreto and Hasan Tahsini to create an Albanian alphabet which by 19 March 1879 the group approved Frashëri's 36 letter alphabet consisting mostly of Latin characters.

Iljaz Bej Mirahori

Iljaz HoxhaImrahor Ilyas BeyIliaz Hodja
While their mother Emine Hanım (1814–1861) was descended from Imrahor Ilyas Bey, a distinguished 15th century Ottoman Albanian commander from the Korçë area.
The Frashëri brothers Abdul (1839-1892), Naim (1846-1900) and Sami (1850-1904) were descendants of Ilyas Bey through their mother Emine who was from Korçë.

Besa (Albanian culture)

besabesasBesa'' tradition during World War II
The play revolved around a betrothed girl kidnapped by a jealous villager that kills her father and whose mother vows revenge co-opting the culprit's father who gives his besa (pledge of honour) to help not knowing its his son, later killing him and himself ending with family reconciliation.
In 1874 Sami Frashëri wrote a play Besâ yâhut Âhde Vefâ (Pledge of Honour or Loyalty to an Oath) with themes based on an Albanian ethnicity, a bond to an ethnic based territory, ethno-cultural diversity as underlying Ottoman unity, honour, loyalty and self-sacrifice.

Hasan Tahsini

During the Great Eastern Crisis, the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was founded in 1877 and headed by elder brother Abdyl with Sami, Hasan Tahsini, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto being members.
The Committee for Defending Albanian Rights appointed Tahsini along with Sami Frashëri, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto to create an Albanian alphabet which by 19 March 1879 the group approved Frashëri's 36 letter alphabet consisting mostly of Latin characters.

Ali Sami Yen

Ali Sami
His son, Ali Sami Yen (1886–1951), was a footballer and founder of Galatasaray SK and chairman of Galatasaray between 1905–18 and 1925–6.
He was the son of Sami Frashëri, one of the most famous Albanian writers, philosophers and playwrights.

Theodor Anton Ippen

IppenTh. IppenTheodor Ippen
Publishers from Austro-Hungary printed some of Frashëri's most important works containing nationalist themes with Austro-Hungarian Albanologists Theodor Anton Ippen and Baron Nopcsa financing the translation and distribution of his publications.
Ippen and Nopcsa openly propagated their efforts in financing activities of Albanian nationalists, for example the translation and distribution of the works authored by Sami Frasheri.

Tosks

ToskTosk AlbanianToskëria
Declaring "I am an Albanian", his work derided identification of Muslim Albanians with Turks and Orthodox Albanians as Rums while he opposed attempts by Greeks to hellenise them and seeking to incorporate Toskëria at a future date into Greece.
Nineteenth century Albanian views of the Tosks as expressed by Sami Frashëri was that unity existed with the Ghegs along with few differences of dialect and pronunciation, while in warfare Tosks were better at perseverance and resistance than Ghegs who were skilled in attack.

Galatasaray S.K.

GalatasarayGalatasaray SKGalatasaray Sports Club
His son, Ali Sami Yen (1886–1951), was a footballer and founder of Galatasaray SK and chairman of Galatasaray between 1905–18 and 1925–6.
Ali Sami Yen, who became Galatasaray SK's first president and was given the club's membership number "1", was the son of Şemseddin Sami (Frashëri), an Ottoman writer, philosopher and playwright of ethnic Albanian origin, and a prominent figure of the Rilindja Kombëtare, the National Renaissance movement of Albania.

Sami Frashëri High School

Sami Frashëri
Nowadays, a lot of schools bear his name, i.e. Sami Frashëri High School is one of the most well-known gymnasium in Prishtina and another in Tirana, and in other localities like Bogovinje, Republic of Macedonia and so on.
The school is among the oldest in Prishtina and Kosovo, and it holds the name of the writer, philosopher, playwright and prominent figure of the Albanian Renaissance Movement, Sami Frashëri.

Shahin Kolonja

After several months passed from his death the identity of Frashëri as author was revealed on 17 November 1904 by Shahin Kolonja who had published the work and later by a German translation of the booklet in 1913.
In 1904, Kolonja translated into Ottoman Turkish and published in Drita the manifesto of Albanian National Awakening, Sami Frashëri's "Shqipëria ç'ka qenë, ç'është e çdo të bëhetë" ("Albania - what it was, what it is and what it will be") of 1889.

Albanian literature

AlbanialiteratureAlbanian
Albanians of the era regarded Frashëri as a patriot, while due to his contributions toward developing a national Albanian literature modern Albanian historians view him as an Albanian nationalist.
Distinguished writers of this period are: Naum Veqilharxhi, Sami Frashëri, Vaso Pasha, Jeronim de Rada, Gavril Dara the Younger, Zef Serembe, Naim Frashëri, Dora d'Istria, Andon Zako Çajupi, Ndre Mjeda, Luigj Gurakuqi, Filip Shiroka, Mihal Grameno, Risto Siliqi, Aleksandër Stavre Drenova, etc.

Muharrir (magazine)

Muharrir
During Ebüzziya Tevfiks exile, Frashëri managed the Ottoman journal Muharrir.
During this time he handed over the management of the journal to Şemsettin Sami (1850-1904).