Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhyaSamkhya philosophySankyaSamkhya schoolSāmkhyapurushaSamkhyinsSamkhyā
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST: ) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.wikipedia
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Yoga (philosophy)

YogaYoga philosophyphilosophy of yoga
It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it was influential on other schools of Indian philosophy.
It is closely related to the Samkhya school of Hinduism.

Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopher
Sometimes described as one of the rationalist schools of Indian philosophy, this ancient school's reliance on reason was exclusive but strong.
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.

Āstika and nāstika

AstikaĀstikaNastika
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST: ) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
The most studied Āstika schools of Indian philosophies, sometimes referred to as orthodox schools, are six: Nyāyá, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedānta.

Kaivalya

liberation
The end of this imbalance, bondage is called liberation, or kaivalya, by the Samkhya school.
It is the isolation of purusha from prakṛti, and liberation from rebirth, i.e., Moksha (although this is controversial due to the predominant view that it is impossible to separate/isolate purusha from prakrati, and vice versa).

Prakṛti

PrakritiPrakrtimatter
Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter).
It is a key concept in Hinduism, formulated by its Samkhya school, and refers to the primal matter with three different innate qualities (Guṇas) whose equilibrium is the basis of all observed empirical reality.

Pramana

pramāṇapramanasanumana
Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge.
The texts on Pramana, particularly by Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Advaita Vedanta schools of Hinduism, include in their meaning and scope "Theories of Errors", that is why human beings make error and reach incorrect knowledge, how can one know if one is wrong, and if so, how can one discover whether one's epistemic method was flawed, or one's conclusion (truth) was flawed, in order to revise oneself and reach correct knowledge.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it was influential on other schools of Indian philosophy.
Samkhya, Mimamsa and Carvaka schools of Hinduism, were non-theist/atheist, arguing that "God was an unnecessary metaphysical assumption".

Purusha

PurusaPuruṣaconsciousness
Sāmkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter).
Both Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism state that there are two ultimate realities whose interaction accounts for all experiences and universe - Prakrti (matter) and Purusha (spirit).

Kapila

KapilKapil MuniKapila Muni
Sage Kapila is traditionally credited as a founder of the Samkhya school.
Kapila is a given name of different individuals in ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most well known is the founder of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.

Samkhyakarika

Samkhya KarikaIshvara KrishnaSankhya Karika
Yuktidipika is an ancient review by an unknown author and has emerged as the most important commentary on Samkhyakarika – itself an ancient key text of the Samkhya school.
The Samkhyakarika is the earliest surviving text of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.

Maitrayaniya Upanishad

Maitri UpanishadMaitriMaitrāyaṇi Upanishad
Surendranath Dasgupta, for example, stated in 1922 that Samkhya can be traced to Upanishads such as Katha Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Maitrayaniya Upanishad, and that the "extant Samkhya" is a system that unites the doctrine of permanence of the Upanishads with the doctrine of momentariness of Buddhism and the doctrine of relativism of Jainism.
The Maitri Upanishad is an important ancient text notable, in its expanded version, for its references to theories also found in Buddhism, elements of the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism, as well as the Ashrama system.

Yoga

yogicyogiYog
Samkhya and Yoga are mentioned together for first time in chapter 6.13 of the Shvetashvatra Upanishad, as samkhya-yoga-adhigamya (literally, "to be understood by proper reasoning and spiritual discipline").
One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

Bhagavad Gita

GitaBhagavad-GitaBhagvad Gita
Bhagavad Gita identifies Samkhya with understanding or knowledge.
The text covers jnana, bhakti, karma, and Raja Yoga (spoken of in the 6th chapter) incorporating ideas from the Samkhya-Yoga philosophy.

Vijnanabhiksu

VijñānabhikṣuVijnana BikshuVijnanabhikshu
This also explains why some of the later Samkhya commentators, e.g. Vijnanabhiksu in the sixteenth century, tried to revive the earlier theism in Samkhya.
He wrote commentaries in the 15th century on three different schools of Indian philosophy, Vedānta, Sāṃkhya, and Yoga, and integrated them into a nondualism platform that belongs to both the Bhedabheda and Advaita (nondualism) sub-schools of Vedanta.

Alara Kalama

AlaraArāḍa KālāmaĀlāra Kālāma
Ruzsa in 2006, for example, states, "Sāṅkhya has a very long history. Its roots go deeper than textual traditions allow us to see. The ancient Buddhist Aśvaghoṣa (in his Buddha-Carita) describes Arāḍa Kālāma, the teacher of the young Buddha (ca. 420 B.C.E.) as following an archaic form of Sāṅkhya."
He was the specialist of Samkhya philosophy.

Avyakta

The emphasis of duality between existence (sat) and non-existence (asat) in the Nasadiya Sukta of the Rigveda is similar to the vyakta–avyakta (manifest–unmanifest) polarity in Samkhya.
Avyakta as a category along with Mahat (Cosmic Intelligence) and Purusa plays an important role in the later Samkhya philosophy even though the Bhagavad Gita III.42 retaining the psychological categories altogether drops out the Mahat and the Avyakta (Unmanifest), the two objective categories.

Vedanta

VedanticVedāntaVedantist
The Gita integrates Samkhya thought with the devotion (bhakti) of theistic schools and the impersonal Brahman of Vedanta.
The Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya, Yoga, and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought.

Isvarakrsna

Ishvara KrishnaĪśvarakṛṣṇa
Isvarakrsna is identified in these texts as the one who summarized and simplified Samkhya theories of Pancasikha, many centuries later (roughly 4th or 5th century CE), in the form that was then translated into Chinese by Paramartha in the 6th century CE.
Isvarakrsna (Sanskrit: ईश्वर कृष्णः ) (5th century AD) is the author of the Samkhyakarika, an early account of the universe and its components (tattvas) according to the Samkhya school.

Ahamkara

AhankaraSasmitaAhamkara (Ego)
The concept of ahamkara in Samkhya can be traced back to the notion of ahamkara in chapters 1.2 and 1.4 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and chapter 7.25 of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad.
The term originated in Vedic philosophy over 3,000 years ago, and was later incorporated into Hindu philosophy, particularly Saṃkhyā philosophy.

Tattva

tattvasTattwasfive elements
The enumeration of tattvas in Samkhya is also found in Taittiriya Upanishad, Aitareya Upanishad and Yajnavalkya–Maitri dialogue in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
The Samkhya philosophy uses a system of 25 tattvas, while Shaivism recognises 36 tattvas.

Advaita Vedanta

AdvaitaAdvaita VedāntaAdvaitha
The most popular commentary on the Samkhyakarika was the Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya attributed to Gauḍapāda, the proponent of Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy.
Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedanta, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement.

Samkhya Pravachana Sutra

Samkhyapravachana SutraSamkhya SutraSāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra
The Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c.
The Samkhya Pravachana Sutra is a collection of major Sanskrit texts of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
The Gita integrates Samkhya thought with the devotion (bhakti) of theistic schools and the impersonal Brahman of Vedanta.
Those that consider Brahman and Atman as same are monist or pantheistic, and Advaita Vedanta, later Samkhya and Yoga schools illustrate this metaphysical premise.

Dualism (Indian philosophy)

dualismdualisticdualist
Samkhya is strongly dualist.
This mainly takes the form of either mind-matter dualism in Buddhist philosophy or consciousness-matter dualism in the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy.

Shvetashvatara Upanishad

Svetasvatara UpanishadShvetashvataraSvetasvatara
Surendranath Dasgupta, for example, stated in 1922 that Samkhya can be traced to Upanishads such as Katha Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Maitrayaniya Upanishad, and that the "extant Samkhya" is a system that unites the doctrine of permanence of the Upanishads with the doctrine of momentariness of Buddhism and the doctrine of relativism of Jainism.
The fourth chapter of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad contains the famous metaphorical verse 4.5, that was oft-cited and debated by the scholars of dualistic Samkhya, monist Vedanta and theistic Vedanta schools of Hinduism in ancient and medieval era, for example in Vedanta Sutra's section 1.4.8.