Sample preparation in mass spectrometry

sample preparation
Sample preparation for mass spectrometry is used for the optimization of a sample for analysis in a mass spectrometer (MS).wikipedia
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In-gel digestion

in gel
In some cases, the analyte itself must be adjusted so that analysis is possible, such as in protein mass spectrometry, where usually the protein of interest is cleaved into peptides before analysis, either by in-gel digestion or by proteolysis in solution.
The in-gel digestion step is a part of the sample preparation for the mass spectrometric identification of proteins in course of proteomic analysis.

Mass spectrometry

mass spectrometerMSmass spectrometric
Sample preparation for mass spectrometry is used for the optimization of a sample for analysis in a mass spectrometer (MS).

Concentration

concentrationsanalytical concentrationM
Each ionization method has certain factors that must be considered for that method to be successful, such as volume, concentration, sample phase, and composition of the analyte solution.

Analyte

analytesanalyte species
Each ionization method has certain factors that must be considered for that method to be successful, such as volume, concentration, sample phase, and composition of the analyte solution.

Ion source

Electron Beam Ion Sourceplasma desorption mass spectrometryAtmospheric pressure ionization
In some cases the analyte itself must be purified before entering the ion source.

Matrix (chemical analysis)

matrixmatrix effectsample matrix
In other situations, the matrix, or everything in the solution surrounding the analyte, is the most important factor to consider and adjust.

Protein mass spectrometry

HX/MSmass spectrometryMudPIT
In some cases, the analyte itself must be adjusted so that analysis is possible, such as in protein mass spectrometry, where usually the protein of interest is cleaved into peptides before analysis, either by in-gel digestion or by proteolysis in solution.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
In some cases, the analyte itself must be adjusted so that analysis is possible, such as in protein mass spectrometry, where usually the protein of interest is cleaved into peptides before analysis, either by in-gel digestion or by proteolysis in solution.

Proteolysis

proteolyticprotein degradationpolyprotein
In some cases, the analyte itself must be adjusted so that analysis is possible, such as in protein mass spectrometry, where usually the protein of interest is cleaved into peptides before analysis, either by in-gel digestion or by proteolysis in solution.

Field desorption

FDFIfield ionization
Solid phase samples can be ionized through methods such as field desorption, plasma-desorption, fast atom bombardment, and secondary-ion ionization.

Fast atom bombardment

CF-FABfast-atom bombardmentspectrometry, mass, fast atom bombardment
Solid phase samples can be ionized through methods such as field desorption, plasma-desorption, fast atom bombardment, and secondary-ion ionization.

Secondary ion mass spectrometry

SIMSsecondary ion mass spectrometerIon Microprobe
Solid phase samples can be ionized through methods such as field desorption, plasma-desorption, fast atom bombardment, and secondary-ion ionization.

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

MALDIMALDI-TOFmatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
Liquids with the analyte dissolved in them, or solutions, can be ionized through methods such as matrix-assisted laser desorption, electrospray ionization, and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization.

Electrospray ionization

ESIelectrosprayelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Liquids with the analyte dissolved in them, or solutions, can be ionized through methods such as matrix-assisted laser desorption, electrospray ionization, and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization.

Atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization

atmospheric pressure chemical ionizationAPCI
Liquids with the analyte dissolved in them, or solutions, can be ionized through methods such as matrix-assisted laser desorption, electrospray ionization, and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization.

Electron ionization

electron bombardmentelectron impact ionizationEI
Gas samples, or volatile samples, can be ionized using methods such as electron ionization, photoionization, and chemical ionization.

Photoionization

photoionisationphotoionizedatmospheric pressure photoionization
Gas samples, or volatile samples, can be ionized using methods such as electron ionization, photoionization, and chemical ionization.

Chemical ionization

CIchemically ionizes
Gas samples, or volatile samples, can be ionized using methods such as electron ionization, photoionization, and chemical ionization.

Gas chromatography

gas chromatographgas-liquid chromatographyGC
Gas chromatography(GC) or liquid chromatography(LC) can be used as a sample preparation method.

Chromatography

liquid chromatographychromatographicstationary phase
Gas chromatography(GC) or liquid chromatography(LC) can be used as a sample preparation method. Often, sample preparation itself for mass spectrometry can be avoided by coupling mass spectrometry to a chromatography method, or some other form of separation before entering the mass spectrometer.

Volatility (chemistry)

volatilevolatilityvolatiles
The GC sample must be volatile, or able to enter the gas phase, while also being thermally stable so that it does not break down as it is heated to enter the gas phase.

Reagent

reactantreagentsreactants
This is so that the sample can react with a reagent gas to form an ion that can be analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

Fragmentation (mass spectrometry)

fragmentationfragmentingfragmentation pattern
CI also has the advantage of being less damaging to the sample molecule, so that less fragmentation occurs and more information about the original analyte can be determined.

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

GC-MSgas chromatography-mass spectrometryGC/MS
Eventually PI was applied to mass spectrometry, particularly as an ionization method for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Photon

photonslight quantaincident photon
PI ionizes molecules by exciting the sample molecules with photons of light.