Sampling frame

frame errorgridsample frame
In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn.wikipedia
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Sampling (statistics)

samplingrandom samplesample
In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn.
As a remedy, we seek a sampling frame which has the property that we can identify every single element and include any in our sample.

Census

UK censuscensusespopulation census
In the most straightforward cases, such as when dealing with a batch of material from a production run, or using a census, it is possible to identify and measure every single item in the population and to include any one of them in our sample; this is known as direct element sampling.
However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population.

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn.

Statistical population

populationsubpopulationsubpopulations
It is a list of all those within a population who can be sampled, and may include individuals, households or institutions.

Statistical unit

experimental unitunitsexperimental units
This list should also facilitate access to the selected sampling units.

Stratified sampling

stratificationstratifiedstratified random sampling
While not necessary for simple sampling, a sampling frame used for more advanced sample techniques, such as stratified sampling, may contain additional information (such as demographic information).

Demography

demographicdemographicsdemographer
While not necessary for simple sampling, a sampling frame used for more advanced sample techniques, such as stratified sampling, may contain additional information (such as demographic information).

Opinion poll

opinion pollingpollapproval rating
For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include an electoral register or a telephone directory.

Electoral roll

electoral registerRollselectoral registers
For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include an electoral register or a telephone directory.

Telephone directory

phone bookwhite pagestelephone directories
For example, in an opinion poll, possible sampling frames include an electoral register or a telephone directory.

Computer file

filefilescomputer files
On a more practical levels, sampling frames have the form of computer files.

Road map

road atlasstreet maproad maps
For example, a street map can be used as a frame for a door-to-door survey; although it doesn't show individual houses, we can select streets from the map and then select houses on those streets.

Sampling bias

ascertainment biasbiased samplebias
In some cases, this may lead to sampling bias.

Disjoint sets

disjointpairwise disjointdisjoint set
The difficulties can be extreme when the population and frame are disjoint.

Forecasting

forecastforecastsprojection
This is a particular problem in forecasting where inferences about the future are made from historical data.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
This is a particular problem in forecasting where inferences about the future are made from historical data.

Jacob Bernoulli

Jakob BernoulliBernoulliJames Bernoulli
In fact, in 1703, when Jacob Bernoulli proposed to Gottfried Leibniz the possibility of using historical mortality data to predict the probability of early death of a living man, Gottfried Leibniz recognized the problem in replying:

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
In fact, in 1703, when Jacob Bernoulli proposed to Gottfried Leibniz the possibility of using historical mortality data to predict the probability of early death of a living man, Gottfried Leibniz recognized the problem in replying:

Probability

probabilisticprobabilitieschance
In fact, in 1703, when Jacob Bernoulli proposed to Gottfried Leibniz the possibility of using historical mortality data to predict the probability of early death of a living man, Gottfried Leibniz recognized the problem in replying:

Pilot experiment

pilot programpilot projectpilot
Problems like those listed can be identified by the use of pre-survey tests and pilot studies.

Snowball sampling

snowballingRespondent Driven Samplingrespondent-driven sampling
As sample members are not selected from a sampling frame, snowball samples are subject to numerous biases.

Systematic sampling

systematic methodsystematic random samplingsystematic samples
Systematic sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame.

Open-access poll

online pollonline web pollopen access poll
Because no sampling frame is used to draw the sample of participants, open-access polls may not have participants that represent the larger population.