Samuel Adams

Sam AdamsSamuelAdamsAdams, Samuel
Samuel Adams (September 27 1722 – October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.wikipedia
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Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Samuel Adams (September 27 1722 – October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay.

Massachusetts Circular Letter

circular lettera circular lettera letter issued by the Massachusetts assembly
His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770.
The Massachusetts Circular Letter was a statement written by Samuel Adams and James Otis Jr., and passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives (as constituted in the government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, not the current constitution) in February 1768 in response to the Townshend Acts.

Boston Massacre

British troops kill five civiliansincident on March 5, 1770murder of Messieurs Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick, James Caldwell, and Crispus Attucks, with Patrick Carr
His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770.
The riot was heavily publicized by leading Patriots, such as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams, to encourage rebellion against the British authorities.

John Adams

AdamsJohnJ. Adams
He was a second cousin to his fellow Founding Father, President John Adams.
Adams was initially less well known than his older cousin Samuel Adams, but his influence emerged from his work as a constitutional lawyer, his analysis of history, and his dedication to republicanism.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States.
This temporarily resolved the crisis, and the boycott of British goods largely ceased, with only the more radical patriots such as Samuel Adams continuing to agitate.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
He helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in 1774 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution.
Anticipating the arrangement of the British Commonwealth, by 1774 American writers such as Samuel Adams, James Wilson, and Thomas Jefferson were arguing that Parliament was the legislature of Great Britain only, and that the colonies, which had their own legislatures, were connected to the rest of the empire only through their allegiance to the Crown.

Committees of correspondence

committee of correspondencea committee of correspondenceBoston Committee of Correspondence
Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in 1772 to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the British Constitution at the expense of the colonies, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies.
In Massachusetts, in November 1772, Samuel Adams and Dr. Joseph Warren formed a committee in response to the Gaspée Affair and in relation to the recent British decision to have the salaries of the royal governor and judges be paid by the Crown rather than the colonial assembly, which removed the colony of its means of holding public officials accountable to their constituents.

Continental Association

Articles of Associationassociationeconomic boycott
He helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in 1774 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution.
On May 13, 1774, the Boston Town Meeting, with Samuel Adams acting as moderator, passed a resolution that called for an economic boycott in response to the Boston Port Act, one of the Coercive Acts.

Republicanism in the United States

republicanismrepublicanAmerican republicanism
He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States.
The "Founding Fathers" were strong advocates of republican values, especially Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton.

Continental Congress

CongressContinental Congressman from DelawareDelegate to the Continental Congress
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia which was convened to coordinate a colonial response.
Other notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts Bay Colony, and Joseph Galloway and John Dickinson from the Province of Pennsylvania.

Samuel Adams Sr.

Samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16, 1722, an Old Style date that is sometimes converted to the New Style date of September 27. Adams was one of twelve children born to Samuel Adams, Sr., and Mary (Fifield) Adams in an age of high infant mortality; only three of these children lived past their third birthday.
Samuel Adams Sr. (1689–1748) was an American brewer, and father of American founding father Samuel Adams.

Constitution of Massachusetts

state constitutionconstitutionits constitution
He helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in 1774 and the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution.
It appointed a subcommittee of James Bowdoin, Samuel Adams, and John Adams to draft the constitution and that trio delegated the drafting to John Adams alone.

Boston Caucus

Deacon Adams became a leading figure in Boston politics through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes.
The Boston Caucus was established in around 1719 by the popular physician and merchant Elisha Cooke, Jr. It quickly grew as a powerful political force in the area but its later activities are what associate it most with Samuel Adams and the run up to American Independence.

Province of Massachusetts Bay

MassachusettsMassachusetts Baycolonial Massachusetts
He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. Samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16, 1722, an Old Style date that is sometimes converted to the New Style date of September 27. Adams was one of twelve children born to Samuel Adams, Sr., and Mary (Fifield) Adams in an age of high infant mortality; only three of these children lived past their third birthday.
This turned a number of important colonists against crown and Parliament, including the father of American Revolutionary War political leader Samuel Adams.

Thomas Hutchinson (governor)

Thomas HutchinsonHutchinsonGovernor Hutchinson
On August 26, lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson's home was destroyed by an angry crowd.
He was a politically polarizing figure who came to be identified by John Adams and Samuel Adams as a proponent of hated British taxes, despite his initial opposition to Parliamentary tax laws directed at the colonies.

John Hancock

Governor HancockJohn Hancock IIIfirst signer
Joining Adams in the House was John Hancock, a new representative from Boston.
He began his political career in Boston as a protégé of Samuel Adams, an influential local politician, though the two men later became estranged.

Patriot (American Revolution)

PatriotPatriotsWhig
Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in 1772 to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the British Constitution at the expense of the colonies, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies.
Samuel Adams

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea PartyTea PartyBoston
Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution.
Samuel Adams considered the British tea monopoly to be "equal to a tax" and to raise the same representation issue whether or not a tax was applied to it. Some regarded the purpose of the tax program—to make leading officials independent of colonial influence—as a dangerous infringement of colonial rights.

Faneuil Hall

Faneuil Hall MarketplaceFaneuilFaneuil Hall and Marketplace Center
Bernard refused, so the town meeting called on the other Massachusetts towns to send representatives to meet at Faneuil Hall beginning on September 22. About 100 towns sent delegates to the convention, which was effectively an unofficial session of the Massachusetts House.
It was the site of several speeches by Samuel Adams, James Otis, and others encouraging independence from Great Britain.

Massachusetts Convention of Towns

convention of townsthe convention
Bernard refused, so the town meeting called on the other Massachusetts towns to send representatives to meet at Faneuil Hall beginning on September 22. About 100 towns sent delegates to the convention, which was effectively an unofficial session of the Massachusetts House.
The more militant faction, led by James Otis Jr., Samuel Adams, and John Hancock, wanted to organize an armed resistance.

Sons of Liberty

Son of LibertyAmerican modelBoston Whigs
In Boston, a group called the Loyal Nine, a precursor to the Sons of Liberty, organized protests of the Stamp Act.
Samuel Adams – political writer, tax collector, cousin of John Adams, fire warden. Founded the Sons Of Liberty, Boston

Stamp Act 1765

Stamp ActStamp Act of 17651765 Stamp Act
In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act which required colonists to pay a new tax on most printed materials.
In May 1764, Samuel Adams of Boston drafted the following that stated the common American position:

Journal of Occurrences

The occupation was publicized throughout the colonies in the Journal of Occurrences, an unsigned series of newspaper articles that may have been written by Adams in collaboration with others.
Authorship of the articles was anonymous, but is usually attributed to Samuel Adams, then the clerk of the Massachusetts House of Representatives.

Harvard College

HarvardHarvard Universityhouses
A graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics.
Samuel Adams

Old South Meeting House

Old South ChurchOld SouthThird Church
Adams's parents were devout Puritans and members of the Old South Congregational Church.
Samuel Adams