Samuel Freeman Miller

MillerSamuel F. MillerJustice MillerSamuel MillerJustice Samuel Miller
Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890.wikipedia
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Transylvania University

TransylvaniaTransylvania CollegeKentucky University
He earned a medical degree in 1838 from Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky.
Amongst Transylvania's prominent alumni are two U.S. vice presidents, John C. Breckinridge and Richard Mentor Johnson, and two U.S. Supreme Court justices, John Marshall Harlan and Samuel Freeman Miller.

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
After the war, his narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment—he wrote the opinion in the Slaughterhouse Cases—limited the effectiveness of the amendment.
Justice Miller actually wrote in the Slaughter-House Cases that the right to become a citizen of a state (by residing in that state) "is conferred by the very article under consideration" (emphasis added), rather than by the "clause" under consideration.

Richmond, Kentucky

RichmondRichmond, KYRichmond, Kentucky micropolitan area
Born in Richmond, Kentucky, Miller was the son of yeoman farmer Frederick Miller and his wife Patsy.

Barbourville, Kentucky

BarbourvilleBarbourville, KY
While practicing medicine for a decade in Barbourville, Kentucky, he studied the law on his own and was admitted to the bar in 1847.

Privileges or Immunities Clause

privileges or immunitiesrights and privileges
Miller wrote the majority opinion in Bradwell v. Illinois, which held that the right to practice law was not constitutionally protected under the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
In obiter dicta, Justice Miller's opinion in Slaughter-House went so far as to acknowledge that the privileges or immunities of a citizen of the United States include at least some rights listed in the first eight amendments: "The right to peaceably assemble and petition for redress of grievances...are rights of the citizen guaranteed by the Federal Constitution".

Keokuk, Iowa

KeokukKeokuk, IAKeokuk IA
In 1850, Miller moved to Keokuk, Iowa, which was a state more amenable to his views on slavery, and he immediately freed his few slaves who had come with his family from Kentucky.

Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois

Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company v. IllinoisWabash v. IllinoisWabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois
Miller also supported the use of broad federal power under the Commerce Clause to override state regulations, as in Wabash v. Illinois.
The majority's opinion was written by Justice Samuel Miller; joining him were associate justices Stephen Field, John Harlan, William Woods, Stanley Matthews, and Samuel Blatchford.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
Active in Iowa politics, he supported Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election.
Samuel Freeman Miller, supported Lincoln in the 1860 election and was an avowed abolitionist.

Morrison Waite

Morrison R. WaiteChief Justice WaiteMorrison Remick Waite
When Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase died in 1873, attorneys and law journals across the country lobbied for Miller to be appointed to succeed him, but President Ulysses Grant was determined to appoint an outsider; he ultimately chose Morrison Waite.
After ruling out a promotion of a sitting Associate Justice to Chief (despite much lobbying from the legal community for Justice Samuel Freeman Miller), Grant offered the Chief Justiceship to senators Oliver Morton of Indiana and Timothy Howe of Wisconsin, then to his Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish.

Slaughter-House Cases

Slaughterhouse CasesThe Slaughterhouse CasesThe Slaughter-House Cases
After the war, his narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment—he wrote the opinion in the Slaughterhouse Cases—limited the effectiveness of the amendment.
In the majority opinion written by Associate Justice Samuel Freeman Miller, the Court held to a narrower interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment than the plaintiffs urged, ruling that it did not restrict the police powers exercised by Louisiana because the Privileges or Immunities Clause protected only those rights guaranteed by the United States, not individual states.

Justice Samuel Freeman Miller House

Samuel F. Miller House and Museum
*Justice Samuel Freeman Miller House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Iowa
The significance of this house is its association with Samuel Freeman Miller who had it built.

National University School of Law

National University Law SchoolNational UniversityNational Law School
In the winter of 1889 and spring of 1890, Justice Miller delivered a series of ten lectures on constitutional law at the National University School of Law in Washington D.C. They were published posthumously, along with two earlier lectures delivered in 1887.
Other prominent early lecturers included Supreme Court justice Samuel Freeman Miller and historian James Schouler.

United States v. Kagama

Kagama
In a unanimous decision issued at the end of May 1886, and authored by Justice Samuel Freeman Miller, the Supreme Court ruled that the Major Crimes Act was constitutional, and, therefore, the case was within the jurisdiction of the federal courts.

Henry Billings Brown

Henry B. BrownHenry BrownBrown
After lobbying by Brown and by the Michigan congressional delegation, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Brown, a Republican, to the Supreme Court of the United States on 23 December 1890, to a seat vacated due to the death of Justice Samuel F. Miller.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890.

Yeoman

yeomenyeoman farmeryeoman farmers
Born in Richmond, Kentucky, Miller was the son of yeoman farmer Frederick Miller and his wife Patsy.

Lexington, Kentucky

LexingtonLexington, KYLexington-Fayette
He earned a medical degree in 1838 from Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky.

Abolitionism in the United States

abolitionistabolitionistsabolitionism
Favoring the abolition of slavery, which was prevalent in Kentucky, he supported the Whigs in Kentucky.

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
Favoring the abolition of slavery, which was prevalent in Kentucky, he supported the Whigs in Kentucky.

Whig Party (United States)

WhigWhig PartyWhigs
Favoring the abolition of slavery, which was prevalent in Kentucky, he supported the Whigs in Kentucky.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
Lincoln nominated Miller to the Supreme Court on July 16, 1862, after the beginning of the American Civil War.

Habeas corpus

writ of habeas corpuswrit of ''habeas corpushabeas petition
His opinions strongly favored Lincoln's positions, and he upheld his wartime suspension of habeas corpus and trials by military commission.

Bradwell v. Illinois

Bradwell v. State of IllinoisBradwell vs. Illinois
Miller wrote the majority opinion in Bradwell v. Illinois, which held that the right to practice law was not constitutionally protected under the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.