A report on SanchiStupa and Torana

The Piprahwa stupa is one of the earliest surviving stupas.
Torana of Sanchi Stupa. The stupa dates to the period of the Mauryan Empire (3rd century BC), but the torana itself dates to the Satavahana period, in the 1st century CE. The site is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
Buddha's ashes Stupa built by the Licchavis, Vaishali and one of the earliest stupas
Toran from Gujarat, 20th Century, plain cotton weave with embroidery and mirror work, Honolulu Museum of Art. The hanging pieces are stylized mango leaves. Could be tied over a door as dvara-torana or hanged on a wall as bhitti-torana.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
An early stupa, 6 m in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side at Chakpat, near Chakdara; probably Maurya, 3rd century BCE
Hindola Torana. 9th century Torana in Madhya Pradesh, India.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
an inscribed dedication
The famous torii at Itsukushima Shrine, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Japan, where the Indian Hindu goddess Saraswati is worshipped as the Buddhist-Shinto goddess Benzaiten.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
Hongsalmun, in red, at the tomb of legendary Korean Emperor Suro of Geumgwan Gaya and his legendary wife Queen Heo Hwang-ok believed to be an Indian princess and mother of all Koreans of Heo and Kim clans.
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
The Ahin Posh stupa was dedicated in the 2nd century CE under the Kushans, and contained coins of Kaniska I.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
The Chinese Songyue Pagoda
Row of stupas on roadside east of Leh, Ladakh.jpg (523 CE) is thought to derive from the Gandharan tower-stupa model.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Borobudur bell-shaped stupas
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
A Jain stupa, Mathura, 1st century CE
Siri-Satakani inscription
Boudhanath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal
Cave No.19
View of the Wat Phra Kaew complex from the northeast, temple complex of the Emerald Buddha with stupas
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
The sharing of the relics of the Buddha. Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, 2-3rd century CE. ZenYouMitsu Temple Museum, Tokyo.
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan. These surviving relics are now housed in Mandalay, Myanmar.
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
The Eight Great Stupas
Grandpass Vesak Thorana (Pandol) 2022
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
Row of chortens at roadside near Leh, Ladakh
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
Enlightenment Stupa at Ogoy Island, Russia
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Sanchi Stupa No.2, the earliest known stupa with important displays of decorative reliefs, circa 125 BCE<ref name="Bell 15">Didactic Narration: Jataka Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff</ref>
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
East Gateway and Railings of Bharhut Stupa. Sculptured railings: 115 BCE, toranas: 75 BCE.
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi<ref name="Alī Jāvīd p.50">World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 p.50 by Alī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, New York </ref> Decorated toranas built from the 1st c. BCE to the 1st c. CE.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
Amaravati stupa, 1st-2nd century CE
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
A model resembling the Saidu Sharif Stupa, with square base and four columns (1st century CE).<ref>Le Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, Grafikol 2009, p.174-176</ref>
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Loriyan Tangai decorated stupa, in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara (2nd century CE).
Greek travelling costume
A tower-shaped stupa, thought to be the design of the second (rebuilt) Kanishka stupa, Jaulian monastery
Another one
Stupa-shaped reliquary, Kushan period, about 2nd century CE
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Chilas petroglyphs, Buddhist stupa, circa 300-350 CE based on paleography<ref>Dated "between A.D. 300-350 based on Kharosthi, Brahmi, and Sodian inscriptions written before and after the drawing was completed (fig.3) In the center of the triptych, a spectacular stupa with a relatively small dome [anda], a chattravali with seven disks, columns, banners, and multiple bells illustrates a trend towards decorative profusion." {{cite journal |journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute |date=2002 |title=Chital petroglyphs|page=152 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RuhtAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA152 |publisher=Wayne State University Press |language=en}}</ref>
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, which contained the relics of Buddha, the oldest known stupa
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
An early stupa at Guntupalle, probably Maurya Empire, third century BCE
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Buddha statue inside a votive stupa, Sarnath
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Abayagiri Dageba, Sri Lanka
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Chorten near Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
The white stupa in Miaoying Temple, China
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
The Kalachakra stupa in Karma Guen, Spain
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Stupa of Kantha Bopha
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Stupa of King Norodom Suramarit
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Main stupa at Wat Phnom
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
Stupa at Wat Botum
this image
Stupa at Oudong
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Golden stupa at Wat Ounalom
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
thumb|Roadside stupa. Kathmandu 1979
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
Boudhanath Stupa
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Kaathe Swyambhu
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Tahiti stupa
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
Yetkha Stupa
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
thumb|Small stupa in Kathmandu street
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Half lotus.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, and an important monument of Indian Architecture.

- Sanchi

In Mauryan Empire, the archaeological evidence shows the Torana of Sanchi stupa dates back to 3rd century BCE.

- Torana

In the 1st century BCE, four elaborately carved toranas (ornamental gateways) and a balustrade encircling the entire structure were added.

- Sanchi

In effect, many stupas are thought to date originally from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he also erected pillars with his inscriptions, and possibly Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara.

- Stupa

Full-fledged sculptural decorations and scenes of the life of the Buddha would soon follow at Bharhut (115 BCE), Bodh Gaya (60 BCE), Mathura (125-60 BCE), again at Sanchi for the elevation of the toranas (1st century BCE/CE) and then Amaravati (1st-2nd century CE).

- Stupa

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