Sandstone

sandstonesred sandstoneSandsteinGodulian sandstonesandyPennant sandstonePink SandstonesandSand Flats Recreation Areastone
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.wikipedia
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Quartzite

quartziticquartzitesorthoquartzite
Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Quartzite is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.

Sand

sand grainsandybeach sand
Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black.
Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granitic rock outcrop.

Clastic rock

clasticclastclasts
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Grain size varies from clay in shales and claystones; through silt in siltstones; sand in sandstones; and gravel, cobble, to boulder sized fragments in conglomerates and breccias.

Siltstone

siltstonessiltymetasiltstone
Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are typically called argillaceous sediments; rocks with larger grain sizes, including breccias and conglomerates, are termed rudaceous sediments.
Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.

Quartz

rock crystalquartz crystalcitrine
Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar (both silicates) because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in the Goldich dissolution series.
It is very common in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale.

New Red Sandstone

red sandstoneNew Red Sandstone Supergroupsandstone
Red sandstones, both Old Red Sandstone and New Red Sandstone, are also seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia.
The New Red Sandstone, chiefly in British geology, is composed of beds of red sandstone and associated rocks laid down throughout the Permian (280 million years ago) to the end of the Triassic (about 200 million years ago), that underlie the Jurassic-Triassic age Penarth Group.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardaquiclude
Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs.
Porous aquifers typically occur in sand and sandstone.

Porosity

porousporepores
Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs.
Consolidated rocks (e.g., sandstone, shale, granite or limestone) potentially have more complex "dual" porosities, as compared with alluvial sediment.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals.
This means that they were at first fragmental rocks like limestone, shale and sandstone and have never been in a molten condition nor entirely in solution, but the high temperature and pressure conditions of metamorphism have acted on them by erasing their original structures and inducing recrystallization in the solid state.

Dune

sand dunesand dunesdunes
A lithified (consolidated) sand dune is a type of sandstone that is formed when a marine or aeolian sand dune becomes compacted and hardened.

Compaction (geology)

compactioncompactedcompactional
Finally, once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains.
Mudstones start with porosities of >60%, sandstones typically ~40% and carbonates sometimes as high as 70%.

Opal

black opalfire opalopals
It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl, and basalt.

Turbidite

turbiditesturbiditicMetaturbidite
Bouma cycles begin with an erosional contact of a coarse lower bed of pebble to granule conglomerate in a sandy matrix, and grade up through coarse then medium plane parallel sandstone; through cross-bedded sandstone; rippled cross-bedded sand/silty sand, and finally laminar siltstone and shale.

Gazzi-Dickinson method

Gazzi-Dickinson point-counting method
Sandstone classifications are typically done by point-counting a thin section using a method like the Gazzi-Dickinson Method.
The Gazzi-Dickinson method is a point-counting technique used in geology to statistically measure the components of a sedimentary rock, chiefly sandstone.

QFL diagram

QFL diagrams
The composition of a sandstone can have important information regarding the genesis of the sediment when used with a triangular Quartz, Feldspar, Lithic fragment (QFL diagrams).
A QFL diagram or QFL triangle is a type of ternary diagram that shows compositional data from sandstones and modern sands, point counted using the Gazzi-Dickinson method.

Greywacke

graywackegrauwackegreywackes
Greywacke or graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.

Argillaceous minerals

argillaceousargillaceous limestoneargillaceous limestones
Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are typically called argillaceous sediments; rocks with larger grain sizes, including breccias and conglomerates, are termed rudaceous sediments.
Similarly, argillaceous sandstones are sandstones consisting primarily of quartz grains, with the interstitial spaces filled with clay minerals.

Arkose

arkosicarkose sandstoneArkosic sand
Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar.

Gritstone

gritmillstone gritgrits
Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain, e.g., gritstone.
Gritstone or grit is a hard, coarse-grained, siliceous sandstone.

Collyhurst

Collyhurst sandstone
However, some that have been used in the past, such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in North West England, have been found less resistant, necessitating repair and replacement in older buildings.
Much of the red sandstone used for building in Manchester and the surrounding area, including stone for the Roman fort at Castlefield, St Ann's Church in the city centre, Manchester Cathedral and the original buildings of Chetham's Hospital, came from Collyhurst Quarry.

Matrix (geology)

matrixgroundmassrock matrix
The cementing substance may be regularly deposited in crystalline continuity on the original grains, where these were crystalline, and even in sandstones (such as Kentish rag), a crystalline matrix of calcite often envelops the sand grains.

Tourmaline

schorlDraviteOlenite
Tourmaline is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in sandstone and conglomerate, and is part of the ZTR index for highly weathered sediments.

Thin section

petrographic thin sectionpolished sectionsection
Sandstone classifications are typically done by point-counting a thin section using a method like the Gazzi-Dickinson Method.
Some note the trend for immature sandstones to have less polycrystalline quartz grains compared to mature sandstones, which have grains that have passed through many sedimentary cycles.

Grindstone

grindstonesgrindingGrinding stones
Because of the hardness of individual grains, uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure, some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones, for sharpening blades and other implements.
Grindstones are usually made from sandstone.

Metamorphic rock

metamorphicmetamorphosedmetamorphic rocks
Chert or flint may become a finely crystalline quartz rock; sandstones lose their clastic structure and are converted into a mosaic of small close-fitting grains of quartz in a metamorphic rock called quartzite.