Sangam literature

Sangamancient Tamil literatureclassical Tamil literatureTamil Sangam literatureSangam poetrySangam textsClassical Tamil poetryliteratureSangam eraSangam Period
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.wikipedia
382 Related Articles

Tamil literature

TamilTamil poetryliterature
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.
The early Sangam literature, (Akananuru (1, 15, 31, 55, 61, 65, 91, 97, 101, 115, 127, 187, 197, 201, 211, 233, 251, 265, 281, 311, 325, 331, 347, 349, 359, 393, 281, 295), Kurunthogai (11), Natrinai (14, 75) are dated before 300 BCE), contain anthologies of various poets dealing with many aspects of life, including love, war, social values and religion.

Tamil language

TamilTamil-languageta
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.
The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca.

Madurai

MaduraMadurai, IndiaMadhurai
The Tamil tradition and legends link it to three literary gatherings around Madurai (Pandyan capital): the first over 4,440 years, the second over 3,700 years, and the third over 1,850 years before the start of the common era.
Sangam literature like Maturaikkāñci records the importance of Madurai as a capital city of the Pandyan dynasty.

Paripāṭal

ParipaatalParipaadalParipatal
The bardic poetry of the Sangam era is largely about love (akam) and war (puram), with the exception of the shorter poems such as in paripaatal which is more religious and praise Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and Murugan.
The Paripāṭal (பரிபாடல், meaning the paripatal-metre anthology) is a classical Tamil poetic work and traditionally the fifth of the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) in the Sangam literature.

Kapilar

Kabilar
Of these, 16 poets account for about 50% of the known Sangam literature, with Kapilar – the most prolific poet – alone contributing just little less than 10% of the entire corpus.
He was the author of Inna Narpathu, a didactic work of the Sangam literature.

Kartikeya

MuruganMurugaSkanda
The bardic poetry of the Sangam era is largely about love (akam) and war (puram), with the exception of the shorter poems such as in paripaatal which is more religious and praise Vishnu, Shiva, Durga and Murugan. The first has roots in the Hindu deity Shiva, his son Murugan, Kubera as well as 545 sages including the famed Rigvedic poet Agastya.
Extant Sangam literature works, dated between the third century BCE and the fifth century CE glorified Murugan, "the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," as "the favoured god of the Tamils."

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
The Sangam literature, sometimes referred to as the Caṅkam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், caṅka ilakkiyam) connotes the ancient Tamil literature and is the earliest known literature of South India.
The first known literature of South India is the poetic Sangam literature, written in Tamil 2500 to 2100 years ago.

Eight Anthologies

EttuthokaiEṭṭuttokaiEttuthogai
The categories are the patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku ("the eighteen greater text series") comprising Ettuthogai (or Ettuttokai, "Eight Anthologies") and the Pattuppāṭṭu ("Ten Idylls").
The Eight Anthologies, known as Ettuthogai or "Eight Collections" in the literature, is a classical Tamil poetic work that forms part of the Eighteen Greater Texts (Pathinenmaelkanakku) anthology series of the Sangam Literature.

Ten Idylls

PattuppāṭṭuPattupattuPathupattu
The categories are the patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku ("the eighteen greater text series") comprising Ettuthogai (or Ettuttokai, "Eight Anthologies") and the Pattuppāṭṭu ("Ten Idylls").
The Ten Idylls, known as Pattuppāṭṭu or Ten Lays, is an anthology of ten longer poems in the Sangam literature – the earliest known Tamil literature.

Eighteen Greater Texts

PatiṉeṇmēlkaṇakkuPathinenmaelkanakkuEighteen Greater Text Series
The categories are the patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku ("the eighteen greater text series") comprising Ettuthogai (or Ettuttokai, "Eight Anthologies") and the Pattuppāṭṭu ("Ten Idylls").
This collection is considered part of the Sangam Literature and dated approximately between 100 BCE and 200 CE.

Agastya

AgasthyaAgathiyarAgasti
The first has roots in the Hindu deity Shiva, his son Murugan, Kubera as well as 545 sages including the famed Rigvedic poet Agastya.
According to K.N. Sivaraja Pillai, for example, there is nothing in the early Sangam literature or any Tamil texts prior to about the mid 1st millennium CE that mentions Agastya.

U. V. Swaminatha Iyer

Dr. U. V. Swaminatha IyerU.V.Swaminatha IyerU V Swaminatha Iyer
They were rediscovered by colonial-era scholars such as Arumuka Navalar (1822-1879), C. W. Thamotharampillai (1832-1901) and U. V. Swaminatha Aiyar (1855-1942).
Uttamadhanapuram Venkatasubbaiyer Swaminatha Iyer (19-Feb-1855 – 28-Apr-1942) was a Tamil scholar and researcher who was instrumental in bringing many long-forgotten works of classical Tamil literature to light.

Agattiyam

Akattiyam
From the second Sangam, states the legend, the Akattiyam and the Tolkāppiyam survived and guided the third Sangam scholars.
There is no mention of the sage, or Agattiyam text, in Tolkappiyam or the bardic poetry of the Sangam literature.

Tolkāppiyam

TolkappiyamTholkappiyamTolkappiyar
From the second Sangam, states the legend, the Akattiyam and the Tolkāppiyam survived and guided the third Sangam scholars. Together, these scholars printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar Urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Silappatikaram (1889), Pattuppāṭṭu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries.
Scholars reject traditional datings based on three sangams and the myth of great floods because there is no verifiable evidence in its favor, and the available evidence based on linguistics, epigraphy, Sangam literature and other Indian texts suggest a much later date.

Purananuru

PuṟanāṉūṟuPuraNanooruபுறநானூறு
Together, these scholars printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar Urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Silappatikaram (1889), Pattuppāṭṭu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries.
The Purananuru (, literally "four hundred [poems] in the genre puram"), sometimes called Puram or Purappattu, is a classical Tamil poetic work and traditionally the last of the Eight Anthologies (Ettuthokai) in the Sangam literature.

Silappatikaram

CilappatikaramSilappadikaramSilapathikaram
Together, these scholars printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar Urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Silappatikaram (1889), Pattuppāṭṭu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries.
He is reputed to be the brother of Chera king Cenkuttuvan, whose family and rule are described in the Fifth Ten of the Patiṟṟuppattu, a poem of the Sangam literature.

Tamil Sangams

Tamil SangamSangamsangams
The Sangam period extended from roughly 400 BC to 200 AD (early Chola period before the interregnum), when the earliest extant works of Tamil literature were written (also known as Sangam literature).

Kumari Kandam

continentKumari kaandamKumarikkandam
These claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses Kumari Kandam have been dismissed as frivolous by historiographers.

Arumuka Navalar

Arumuga NavalarNavalarSaiva revivalism
They were rediscovered by colonial-era scholars such as Arumuka Navalar (1822-1879), C. W. Thamotharampillai (1832-1901) and U. V. Swaminatha Aiyar (1855-1942).
With this recovery, editing, and publishing of ancient works, Navalar laid the foundations for the recovery of lost Tamil classics that other Tamil scholars such as U. V. Swaminatha Iyer and C.W. Thamotharampillai continued.

Magh Mela

Some of the Paripaatal love poems are set in the context of bathing festivals (Magh Mela) and various Hindu gods.
An annual bathing festival is also mentioned in ancient Tamil anthologies of the Sangam period.

Kamil Zvelebil

Kamil V. ZvelebilZvelebil
According to Kamil Zvelebil – a Tamil literature and history scholar, the most acceptable range for the Sangam literature is 100 BCE to 250 CE, based on the linguistic, prosodic and quasi-historic allusions within the texts and the colophons.

Colophon (publishing)

colophoncolophonsdated
According to Kamil Zvelebil – a Tamil literature and history scholar, the most acceptable range for the Sangam literature is 100 BCE to 250 CE, based on the linguistic, prosodic and quasi-historic allusions within the texts and the colophons.

Matha

MathmuttJain Matha
The Sangam literature had fallen into oblivion for much of the 2nd millennium of the common era, but were preserved by and rediscovered in the monasteries of Hinduism, particularly those related to Shaivism near Kumbhakonam, by the colonial era scholars in late 19th-century.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
The Sangam literature had fallen into oblivion for much of the 2nd millennium of the common era, but were preserved by and rediscovered in the monasteries of Hinduism, particularly those related to Shaivism near Kumbhakonam, by the colonial era scholars in late 19th-century.

Shaivism

ShaivaShaiviteSaivite
The Sangam literature had fallen into oblivion for much of the 2nd millennium of the common era, but were preserved by and rediscovered in the monasteries of Hinduism, particularly those related to Shaivism near Kumbhakonam, by the colonial era scholars in late 19th-century.