Sanskrit

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

- Sanskrit
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

204 related topics

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A conversation in American Sign Language

Classical language

Any language with an independent literary tradition and a large and ancient body of written literature.

Any language with an independent literary tradition and a large and ancient body of written literature.

A conversation in American Sign Language

In terms of worldwide cultural importance, Edward Sapir in his book Language would extend the list to include Chinese, Arabic, and Sanskrit:

A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir

Pāṇini

A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
A representational statue of Pāṇini at Panini Tapobhumi, Arghakhanchi District of Nepal

Pāṇini (Devanagari: पाणिनि, ) was a Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and revered scholar in ancient India, variously dated between the 6th and 4th century BCE.

Palm-leaf page from a version of Aṣṭādhyāyī in Grantha script.

Aṣṭādhyāyī

Palm-leaf page from a version of Aṣṭādhyāyī in Grantha script.

The Aṣṭādhyāyī is a grammar that describes a form of early Indo-Aryan: Sanskrit.

A 20th-century artist's impression of Kālidāsa composing the Meghadūta

Kalidasa

A 20th-century artist's impression of Kālidāsa composing the Meghadūta
Śakuntalā stops to look back at Duṣyanta, Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906).

Kālidāsa (fl. 4th–5th century CE) was a Classical Sanskrit author who is often considered ancient India's greatest poet and playwright.

Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh

Indian epic poetry

Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh

Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá).

The syllable Aum rendered with pluta

Vedic Sanskrit

Ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European language family.

Ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European language family.

The syllable Aum rendered with pluta

The formalization of the late form of Vedic Sanskrit language into the Classical Sanskrit form is credited to Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, along with Patanjali's Mahabhasya and Katyayana's commentary that preceded Patanjali's work.

Navy Chaplain Milton Gianulis conducts an Easter morning Orthodox Liturgy candlelight service aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)

Sacred language

Any language that is cultivated and used primarily in church service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily lives.

Any language that is cultivated and used primarily in church service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily lives.

Navy Chaplain Milton Gianulis conducts an Easter morning Orthodox Liturgy candlelight service aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75)

The Chinese and Tibetan canons mainly derive from the Sarvastivada, originally written in Sanskrit, of which fragments remain.

Yasna 28.1, Ahunavaiti Gatha (Bodleian MS J2)

Gatha (Zoroaster)

The Gathas are 17 Avestan hymns traditionally believed to have been composed by the prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster).

The Gathas are 17 Avestan hymns traditionally believed to have been composed by the prophet Zarathushtra (Zoroaster).

Yasna 28.1, Ahunavaiti Gatha (Bodleian MS J2)

The Avestan term gāθā (𐬔𐬁𐬚𐬁 "hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Proto-Indo-Iranian word *gaHtʰáH, from the root *gaH- "to sing".

A seated Ardhanarishvara with both the vahanas

Stotra

A seated Ardhanarishvara with both the vahanas

Stotra (Sanskrit: स्तोत्र) or stotram (स्तोत्रम्) is a Sanskrit word that means "ode, eulogy or a hymn of praise."

A contemporary Ardhanarishvara statue at Sampurnanand Sanskrit University

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya

A contemporary Ardhanarishvara statue at Sampurnanand Sanskrit University

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya (IAST: ; formerly Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya and Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi) is an Indian university and institution of higher learning located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, specializing in the study of Sanskrit and related fields.