A report on Sanskrit

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

- Sanskrit
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

204 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Middle Indo-Aryan languages

5 links

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

The middle stage is represented by the various literary Prakrits, especially the Shauraseni language and the Maharashtri and Magadhi Prakrits. The term Prakrit is also often applied to Middle Indo-Aryan languages (prākṛta literally means 'natural' as opposed to saṃskṛta, which literally means 'constructed' or 'refined'). Modern scholars such as Michael C. Shapiro follow this classification by including all Middle Indo-Aryan languages under the rubric of "Prakrits", while others emphasise the independent development of these languages, often separated from Sanskrit by social and geographic differences.

Thai language

3 links

Tai language of the Kra–Dai language family spoken by the Central Thai people and a vast majority of Thai Chinese.

Tai language of the Kra–Dai language family spoken by the Central Thai people and a vast majority of Thai Chinese.

Monophthongs of Thai. From
Diphthongs of Thai. From
Thai language tone chart
"Kingdom of Thailand" in Thai script.

Over half of its vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer.

An 8th century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy.

Zoroastrianism

3 links

Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster .

Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster .

An 8th century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy.
Painted clay and alabaster head of a Zoroastrian priest wearing a distinctive Bactrian-style headdress, Takhti-Sangin, Tajikistan, Greco-Bactrian kingdom, 3rd–2nd century BCE
The Tomb of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae, Iran.
A scene from the Hamzanama where Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib Burns Zarthust's Chest and Shatters the Urn with his Ashes
The fire temple of Baku, c. 1860
Fire Temple of Yazd
Museum of Zoroastrians in Kerman
A Special Container Carrying The Holy Fire from Aden to the Lonavala Agiary, India
A modern Zoroastrian fire temple in Western India
Sadeh in Tehran, 2011
Map of the Achaemenid Empire in the 5th century BCE
Reconstruction of the Sassanid model of Fire Temple of Kashmar is located near the historical complex of Atashgah Castle
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi or the Khvarenah.
A Parsi Wedding, 1905
The sacred Zoroastrian pilgrimage shrine of Chak Chak in Yazd, Iran.
Parsi Navjote ceremony (rites of admission into the Zoroastrian faith)

Some examples include cognates between the Avestan word Ahura ("Ahura Mazda") and the Vedic Sanskrit word Asura ("demon; evil demigod"); as well as Daeva ("demon") and Deva ("god") and they both descend from a common Proto-Indo-Iranian religion.

13px

Northern Satraps

4 links

The Northern Satraps (Brahmi: Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Kṣatrapa, "Satraps" or Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps"), or sometimes Satraps of Mathura, or Northern Sakas, are a dynasty of Indo-Scythian rulers who held sway over the area of Eastern Punjab and Mathura after the decline of the Indo-Greeks, from the end of the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE.

The Northern Satraps (Brahmi: Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Kṣatrapa, "Satraps" or Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps"), or sometimes Satraps of Mathura, or Northern Sakas, are a dynasty of Indo-Scythian rulers who held sway over the area of Eastern Punjab and Mathura after the decline of the Indo-Greeks, from the end of the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE.

13px
11px
13px
13px
Coins of contemporary Indo-Greek ruler Strato (r.c.25 BCE to 10 CE, top) and Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura Rajuvula (r.c.10 BCE to 10 CE, bottom) discovered together in a mound in Mathura. The coins of Rajuvula were derived from those of Strato.
Indo-Scythian ruler Rajuvula, from his coinage.
The Mathura lion capital, a dynastic production, advertising the rule of Rajuvula and his relatives, as well as their sponsorship of Buddhism. 2 BCE-6 CE.
Coin of Bhadrayasha, early 1st century CE
Mirzapur stele inscription in the reign Sodasa, circa 15 CE, Mirzapur village (in the vicinity of Mathura). Mathura Museum. The inscription refers to the erection of a water tank by Mulavasu and his consort Kausiki, during the reign of Sodasa, assuming the title of "Svami (Lord) Mahakshatrapa (Great Satrap)".
The names of the Mahakshatrapa ("Great Satrap") Kharapallana and the Kshatrapa ("Satrap") Vanaspara in the year 3 of Kanishka (circa 123 CE) were found on this statue of the Bala Bodhisattva, dedicated by "brother (Bhikshu) Bala".
introduced from the Gandhara area
A sample of the new calligraphic style introduced by the Indo-Scythians: fragment of the Mirzapur stele inscription, in the vicinity of Mathura, circa 15 CE. Gupta ashoka svaa.jpgGupta ashoka mi.jpg ashoka sya.svgGupta ashoka m.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka kss.jpg ashoka tr.jpgGupta ashoka p.svg ashoka sya.svg Gupta ashoka shu.jpgGupta gujarat daa.jpgGupta_ashoka_s.svg ashoka sya.svg Svāmisya Mahakṣatrapasya Śudasasya "Of the Lord and Great Satrap Śudāsa"
The "Isapur Buddha", probably the earliest known representation of the Buddha (possibly together with the [[:File:Butkara I stupa in-situ seated Buddha.jpg|Butkara seated Buddha]] statue at the Butkara Stupa, Swat), on a railing post, dated to circa 15 CE.
The Jina Parsvanatha (detail of an ayagapata), highly similar to the Isapur Buddha, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum. <ref name="books.google.com"/>
Indra attending the Buddha
"Indrasala architrave", detail of the Buddha in Indrasala Cave, attended by the Vedic deity Indra. 50-100 CE.
Buddhist "Indrasala architrave", with Buddha and Bodhi Tree in the center of each side, dated 50-100 CE, before the Kushan period. The Buddha is attended by Vedic deity Indra on the side of the Indrasala Cave.
Yashi with onlookers, dated 20 BCE.<ref>Dated 20 BCE in Fig.200 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.200|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA171|language=en}}</ref>
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
1st Jaina Tirthankara Rishabhanatha torso - Circa 1st Century
Four-fold Jain image with Suparshvanath and three other Tirthankaras - Circa 1st Century CE
Goat-headed Jain Mother Goddess, circa 1st Century CE
The Jina Parsvanatha ayagapata, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum.<ref name="SRQ200">{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=200–201|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA201|language=en}}</ref><ref name="books.google.com"/>
"Sihanāṃdikā ayagapata", Jain votive plate, dated 25-50 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=410, Fig. 156|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA410|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.21|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
Jain votive plaque with Jain stupa, the "Vasu Śilāpaṭa" ayagapata, 1st century CE, excavated from Kankali Tila, Mathura.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.26|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
thumb|upright=1.5|Jain relief showing monks of the ardhaphalaka sect. Early 1st century CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=174–176|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA174|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|Jain decorated tympanum from Kankali Tila, Mathura, 15 CE.<ref>Dated 15 CE in Fig.222 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.222|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA201|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|"Persian Achaemenian" style capitals appearing in ayagapatas, Mathura, 15-50 CE.<ref>"the massive pillars in the Persian Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|last1=Shah|first1=Chimanlal Jaichand|title=Jainism in north India, 800 B.C.-A.D. 526|date=1932|publisher=Longmans, Green and co.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=InkrAAAAIAAJ|language=en}}</ref><ref>"The Ayagapata which had been set up by Simhanddika, anterior to the reign of Kanishka, and which is assignable to a period not later than 1 A.D., is worth notice because of the typical pillars in the Persian-Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|title=Bulletin of the Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery|date=1949|publisher=Baroda Museum|page=18|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G-moE4Cjv50C|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Kumar|first1=Ajit|title=Bharhut Sculptures and their untenable Sunga Association|journal=Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology|date=2014|volume=2|pages=223‐241|url=https://www.academia.edu/10237709|language=en}}</ref>
Sivayasa Ayagapata, with Jain stupa fragment, Kankali Tila, 75-100 CE.
The Vasu doorjamb, dedicated to Vāsudeva "in the reign of Sodasa", Mathura, circa 15 CE. Mathura Museum, GMM 13.367
Reliefs of the Mora doorjamb with grapevine design, Mora, near Mathura, circa 15 CE. State Museum Lucknow, SML J.526. Similar scroll designs are known [[:File:Gandhara floral scrolls.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Pataliputra scroll.jpg|from Pataliputra]], and [[:File:South_Arabian_-_Relief_with_Vines_-_Walters_2167.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Garland bearers and Buddhist "Romaka" Jataka, in which the Buddha in a previous life was a pigeon.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-474-1930-3|page=226|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rtqvCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA226|language=en}}</ref> 25-50 CE.<ref>Dated 25-50 CE in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig. 288|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA199|language=en}}</ref> Similar garland-bearer designs are known [[:File:Peshawar Museum Yakshas and Garlands.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Amaravati garland bearer.jpg|from Amaravati]] and [[:File:Greco-Roman garland bearers.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Coin of satrap Hagamasha. Obv. Horse to the left. Rev. Standing figure with symbols, legend Khatapasa Hagāmashasa. 1st century BCE.
Joint coin of Hagana and Hagamasha. Obv.: Horse to left. Rev. Thunderbolt, legend Khatapāna Hagānasa Hagāmashasa. 1st century BCE.
Coin of Rajuvula, c. 10 CE
Coin of Sodasa, early 1st century CE

In what has been described as "the great linguistical paradox of India", Sanskrit inscriptions first appeared much later than Prakrit inscriptions, although Prakrit is considered as a descendant of the Sanskrit language.

Ruins of the site

Nagarjunakonda

3 links

Historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Palnadu district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, near the state border with Telangana.

Historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Palnadu district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, near the state border with Telangana.

Ruins of the site
Holy relic sites map of Andhra Pradesh
Division of Buddha Relics, Nagarjunakonda
Panoramic view of the Buddha statue and other monuments
Relief of Dionysus, Nagarjunakonda Palace site. He has a light beard, is semi-nude and carries a drinking horn. There is a barrel of wine next to him.
Roman aurei found in Nagarjunakonda
Nagarjunakonda Ayaka pillar inscription of the time of Ikshvaku ruler Vira-Purushadatta (250-275 CE)
Megalith Age Burial Area 2nd century

Fa-Hien refers to the monastery as Po-lo-yue; which has been interpreted to mean Pārāvata, meaning "pigeon" (hence the name "Pigeon Monastery"), or Parvata, meaning "hill" in Sanskrit (although the latter is considered to be the correct name).

Macdonell in 1901

Arthur Anthony Macdonell

0 links

Macdonell in 1901

Arthur Anthony Macdonell, FBA (11 May 1854 – 28 December 1930) was a noted Sanskrit scholar.

The Prakrit word "dha-ṃ-ma"/𑀥𑀁𑀫 (Sanskrit: Dharma धर्म) in the Brahmi script, as inscribed by Emperor Ashoka in his Edicts of Ashoka (3rd century BCE).

Dharma

7 links

Key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.

Key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.

The Prakrit word "dha-ṃ-ma"/𑀥𑀁𑀫 (Sanskrit: Dharma धर्म) in the Brahmi script, as inscribed by Emperor Ashoka in his Edicts of Ashoka (3rd century BCE).
The Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription is from Indian Emperor Asoka in 258 BC, and found in Afghanistan. The inscription renders the word dharma in Sanskrit as eusebeia in Greek, suggesting dharma in ancient India meant spiritual maturity, devotion, piety, duty towards and reverence for human community.
Sikhism
The wheel in the centre of India's flag symbolises dharma.

It is explained as law of righteousness and equated to satya (Sanskrit: सत्यं, truth), in hymn 1.4.14 of Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, as follows:

The first page of oldest surviving Panchatantra text in Sanskrit

Panchatantra

0 links

The first page of oldest surviving Panchatantra text in Sanskrit
An 18th-century Pancatantra manuscript page in Braj ("The Talkative Turtle")
A Panchatantra relief at the Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia
A Panchatantra manuscript page
Book 5 of the Panchatantra includes a story about a mongoose and a snake, which was likely an inspiration for the story "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" by Rudyard Kipling.
The evil jackal Damanaka meets the innocent bull Sañjīvaka. Indian painting, 1610.
Panchatantra illustration in Nalanda Temple, 7th century CE (Turtle and the Geese)
Early history based primarily on Edgerton (1924)
Adaptations and translations from Jacobs (1888); less reliable for early history
The foolish carpenter of Sarandib, hiding under the bed on which lie his wife and her lover. She notices his foot and contrives a story to prove her innocence. Persian illustration of the Kalileh and Dimneh, 1333.
A page from Kelileh o Demneh depicts the jackal-vizier Damanaka ('Victor')/ Dimna trying to persuade his lion-king that the honest bull-courtier, Shatraba(شطربة), is a traitor.
From the same 1429 Persian manuscript. Sañjīvaka/Schanzabeh, the innocent bull courtier, is murdered unjustly by King Lion. The scheming jackal vizier [left] Damanaka ('Victor')/Dimna watches in full view of his shocked brother Karataka ('Horribly Howling')/Kalila [right].
A page from the Arabic version of Kalila wa dimna, dated 1210 CE, illustrating the King of the Crows conferring with his political advisors
An illustration from a Syrian edition dated 1354. The rabbit fools the elephant king by showing him the reflection of the moon.
The bird lures fish and kills them, until he tries the same trick with a lobster. Illustration from the editio princeps of the Latin version by John of Capua.

The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, ISO: Pañcatantra, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient Indian collection of interrelated animal fables in Sanskrit verse and prose, arranged within a frame story.

Approximate extent of the centum (blue) and satem (red) areals. The darker red (marking the Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna archaeological cultures' range) is the area of the origin of satemization according to von Bradke's hypothesis, which is not accepted by most linguists.

Centum and satem languages

2 links

Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K", "G" and "Y" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.

Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K", "G" and "Y" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.

Approximate extent of the centum (blue) and satem (red) areals. The darker red (marking the Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna archaeological cultures' range) is the area of the origin of satemization according to von Bradke's hypothesis, which is not accepted by most linguists.

For example, the PIE root *, "hundred", the initial palatovelar normally became a sibilant [s] or [ʃ], as in Avestan satem, Persian sad, Sanskrit śatam, sto in all modern Slavic languages, Old Church Slavonic sъto, Latvian simts, Lithuanian šimtas.

Sample of the Odia alphabet from a Buddhist text from around 1060 AD, written by Sarahapada

Odia script

1 links

Sample of the Odia alphabet from a Buddhist text from around 1060 AD, written by Sarahapada
Temple inscription showing 13th century Siddhaṃ script variant ancestor of modern Odia script at Ananta Vasudeva Temple
15th century copper plate grant of Gajapati emperor Purushottama Deva, showing the distinct formation of the shape of the modern Odia script
Development of Odia scripts
A detailed chart depicting evolution of the Odia script as displayed in a museum at Ratnagiri, Odisha
Om symbol
Om symbol (joint variant)
Consonant ligatures
Karani script sample from Purnachandra Odia Bhashakosha
Development of ancient numerals in Odia
Palm leaf manuscript written in Odia language
Palm leaf manuscript written in Odia language
Palm leaf-jatak manuscript
Jataka
Palm leaf manuscript of Draupadi Lakhabindha in Odia
14th-century Adhyatma Ramayana manuscript written in Sanskrit, Odia script
Dahuka boli
Guru Gita, Skanda Purana, Sanskrit, Odia script
Odia manuscript
Odia manuscript
Odia manuscript
Odia calligraphy

The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର) is a Brahmic script used to write primarily Odia language and others including Sanskrit and other regional languages.