Sanskrit

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

- Sanskrit
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

204 related topics

Alpha

Koine Greek

Lingua franca

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Koine Greek
The Hispanophone and influential areas
Status of Arabic language map
Areas where Russian is the majority language (medium blue) or a minority language (light blue)
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language, and the much wider area of the Indo-Aryan language group (gray), where it is lengua franca
Countries where Malay is spoken
Geographic extent of Swahili. Dark green: native range. Medium green: official use. Light green: bilingual use but not official.
Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian (including dialects)
Rough territorial extent of Hand Talk (in purple) within the US and Canada

Sanskrit historically served as a lingua franca throughout the majority of India and Greater India.

Hindustani language

Ancestors of the language were known as: Hindui, Hindavi, Zabān-e Hind, Zabān-e Hindustan , Hindustan ki boli , Rekhta, and Hindi.

Ancestors of the language were known as: Hindui, Hindavi, Zabān-e Hind, Zabān-e Hindustan , Hindustan ki boli , Rekhta, and Hindi.

The phrase Zabān-e Urdu-ye Mualla in Nastaʿlīq
Lashkari Zabān title in the Perso-Arabic script
Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India (Hindi) and Pakistan (Urdu).
"Surahi" in Samrup Rachna calligraphy

During the period of the Delhi Sultanate, which covered most of today's India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal and Bangladesh and which resulted in the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures, the Sanskrit and Prakrit base of Old Hindi became enriched with loanwords from Persian, evolving into the present form of Hindustani.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous.

Applet for character selection

International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

Applet for character selection

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

Classification of Indo-European languages. Red: Extinct languages. White: categories or unattested proto-languages. Left half: centum languages; right half: satem languages

Proto-Indo-European language

"PIE" and "Proto-Indo-European" redirect here; see PIE (disambiguation) for other uses and Proto-Indo-Europeans for the people.

"PIE" and "Proto-Indo-European" redirect here; see PIE (disambiguation) for other uses and Proto-Indo-Europeans for the people.

Classification of Indo-European languages. Red: Extinct languages. White: categories or unattested proto-languages. Left half: centum languages; right half: satem languages

William Jones, an Anglo-Welsh philologist and puisne judge in Bengal, caused an academic sensation when he postulated the common ancestry of Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin in 1786, but he was not the first to state such a hypothesis.

Painting of Xuanzang. Japan, Kamakura Period (14th century).

Xuanzang

7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator.

7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator.

Painting of Xuanzang. Japan, Kamakura Period (14th century).
Statue of Xuanzang in the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near Luoyang, Henan.
Xuanzang describes colossal Buddhas carved into the rocks of Bamiyan region (above: 19th-century sketch, destroyed by the Taliban in 1990s).
Reconstructed route of Xuanzang over 629–645 CE through India. Along with Nalanda in Bihar, he visited locations that are now in Kashmir, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Bangladesh.
Xuanzang describes thousands of monasteries and stupas in northwest India. Above: the ruins of Dharmarajika stupa, Taxila.
Xuanzang describes Ganges river with blue waters, who heretics believe carries "waters of blessedness", and in which a dip leads to expiation of sins.
Xuanzang describes Prayaga as a great city where Ganges and Yamuna meet, one where people ritually fast, bathe and give away alms.
Xuanzang visited Sravasti site (above), the place where the Buddha spent most of his time after enlightenment.
Statue of Xuanzang at Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang
Xuanzang Temple in Taiwan
An illustration of Xuanzang from Journey to the West, a fictional account of travels.
Golden statue of Xuanzang. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
thumb|Statue of Xuanzang. Great Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an.
Statue of Xuanzang in front of Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an

Another of Xuanzang's standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi : 法 being a Chinese translation for Sanskrit "Dharma" or Pali/Prakrit Dhamma, the implied meaning being "Buddhism".

Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar, emblem of Gupta Empire. The name Gupta_ashoka_s.svgGupta ashoka mu.jpgGupta ashoka ddrr.jpg Sa-mu-dra in an early version of the Gupta Brahmi script, appears vertically under the left arm of the king.

Samudragupta

The second emperor of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India, and one of the greatest rulers in Indian history.

The second emperor of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India, and one of the greatest rulers in Indian history.

Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar, emblem of Gupta Empire. The name Gupta_ashoka_s.svgGupta ashoka mu.jpgGupta ashoka ddrr.jpg Sa-mu-dra in an early version of the Gupta Brahmi script, appears vertically under the left arm of the king.
Inscription:
Gupta allahabad m.svgGupta allahabad haa.jpgGupta allahabad raa.jpgGupta allahabad j.svgGupta allahabad dhi.jpgGupta allahabad raa.jpgGupta allahabad j.svgGupta allahabad shrii.jpgGupta_ashoka_s.svgGupta allahabad mu.jpgGupta allahabad dr.jpgGupta allahabad gu.jpg allahabad pt.jpg
Mahārājadhirāja Shrī Samudragupta
"Great King of Kings, Lord Samudragupta"
in the Gupta script, on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.
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Possible extent of the Gupta Empire, near the end of Samudragupta's reign, c. 375 CE
Text of the Allahabad stone pillar inscription of Samudragupta, in the Brahmi script.
Translation of the Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta
Coin minted in the Punjab area with the name "Samudra" (Gupta_ashoka_s.svgGupta allahabad mu.jpgGupta allahabad dr.jpg Sa-mu-dra), derived from the style of late Kushan Empire coinage, and tamgha Samudra tamgha.jpg. These atypical coins follow the fall of the last Kushan ruler Kipunada, and just precede the coinage of the first Kidarite Huns in northwestern India. Circa CE 350–375.
"Davaka" (Brahmi script: Gupta_allahabad_dd.svgGupta_allahabad_v.svgGupta_allahabad_k.svg) in the Allahabad Pillar inscription
Gupta allahabad de.svgGupta allahabad v.svg allahabad pu.jpgGupta ashoka tr.jpgGupta allahabad ssa.jpgGupta allahabad hi.jpgGupta allahabad ssa.jpgGupta allahabad haa.jpgGupta allahabad nu.jpgGupta allahabad ssa.jpgGupta allahabad hi.jpg The expression Devaputra Shāhi Shāhānu Shāhi in Middle Brahmi in the Allahabad pillar (Line 23).
The vanquished "Śaka" (Gupta_allahabad_sh.svgGupta_allahabad_k.svg) mentioned by Samudragupta in the Allahabad pillar (Line 23) probably refer to the Saka ruler Sridharavarman in Central India.
Samudragupta inscriptions on Allahabad pillar.
Eran inscription of Samudragupta.
A gold coin of Samudragupta
Commemorative type of Chandragupta I: this coin is in the name of Chandragupta I, but since no other coin types of Chandragupta are known, this is thought to be a commemorative issue minted by his son Samudragupta. <ref name="Infobase Publishing">{{cite book |last1=Higham |first1=Charles |title=Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations |date=2014 |publisher=Infobase Publishing |isbn=9781438109961 |page=82 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=H1c1UIEVH9gC&pg=PA82 |language=en}}</ref><ref name="The Coins of India">{{cite book |last1=Brown |first1=C. J. |title=The Coins of India |date=1987 |publisher=Asian Educational Services |isbn=9788120603455 |page=41 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=O-d497CKID0C&pg=PA41 |language=en}}</ref>
Ashvamedha type coin
Lyrist type coin

The following types of Samudragupta's coins, inscribed with Sanskrit language legends, have been discovered:

The syllable Aum rendered with pluta

Vedic Sanskrit

Ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European language family.

Ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European language family.

The syllable Aum rendered with pluta

The formalization of the late form of Vedic Sanskrit language into the Classical Sanskrit form is credited to Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī, along with Patanjali's Mahabhasya and Katyayana's commentary that preceded Patanjali's work.

The Sūryaprajñaptisūtra, an astronomical work written in Jain Prakrit language (in Devanagari book script), c. 1500

Middle Indo-Aryan languages

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

The Sūryaprajñaptisūtra, an astronomical work written in Jain Prakrit language (in Devanagari book script), c. 1500

The middle stage is represented by the various literary Prakrits, especially the Shauraseni language and the Maharashtri and Magadhi Prakrits. The term Prakrit is also often applied to Middle Indo-Aryan languages (prākṛta literally means 'natural' as opposed to saṃskṛta, which literally means 'constructed' or 'refined'). Modern scholars such as Michael C. Shapiro follow this classification by including all Middle Indo-Aryan languages under the rubric of "Prakrits", while others emphasise the independent development of these languages, often separated from Sanskrit by social and geographic differences.

Tattvartha sutra

Tattvartha Sutra

Tattvartha sutra
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra

Tattvārthasūtra, meaning "On the Nature [ artha] of Reality [ tattva]" (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksha-shastra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami in Sanskrit, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century CE.