A report on Sanskrit

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

- Sanskrit
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

204 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A contemporary Ardhanarishvara statue at Sampurnanand Sanskrit University

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya

1 links

A contemporary Ardhanarishvara statue at Sampurnanand Sanskrit University

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya (IAST: ; formerly Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya and Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi) is an Indian university and institution of higher learning located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, specializing in the study of Sanskrit and related fields.

13px

Western Satraps

8 links

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states), between 35 to 415 CE.

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states), between 35 to 415 CE.

13px
13px
13px
11px
The rulers of the Western Satraps were called (𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀔𑀢𑀧, "Great Satrap") in their Brahmi script inscriptions, as here in a dedicatory inscription by Prime Minister Ayama in the name of his ruler Nahapana, Manmodi Caves, circa 100 CE. Nahapana was also attributed the titles of ("King") and  ("Lord") conjointly.
Coin of Bhumaka (?–119). Obv: Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap Bhumaka". Rev: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.
Coin of Nahapana (whose rule is variously dated to 24-70 CE, 66-71 CE, or 119–124 CE), a direct derivation from Indo-Greek coinage. British Museum.
The Greco-Prakrit title "RANNIO KSAHARATA" ("ΡΑΝΝΙ ω ΞΑΗΑΡΑΤΑ(Ϲ)", Prakrit for "King Kshaharata" rendered in corrupted Greek letters) on the obverse of the coinage of Nahapana.
Karla Caves, inscription of Nahapana.
Nasik Cave inscription No.10. of Nahapana, Cave No.10.
One of the pillars built by Ushavadata, viceroy of Nahapana, circa 120 CE, Nasik Caves, cave No10.
Nahapana coin hoard.
The Western Satraps under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The "Saka-Yavana-Palhava" (Brahmi script: 𑀲𑀓 𑀬𑀯𑀦 𑀧𑀮𑁆𑀳𑀯) defeated by Gautamiputra Satakarni, mentioned in the Nasik cave 3 inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri (end of line 5 of the inscription).
Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni struck over a drachm of Nahapana. Circa 167-196 CE. Ujjain symbol and three arched mountain symbol struck respectively on the obverse and reverse of a drachm of Nahapana.
Coin of the Western Satrap Chastana (c. 130 CE). Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap Castana".
Statue of Chastana, with costume details. The belt displays designs of horsemen and tritons/anguipeds, the coat has a highly ornate hem. Inscription "Shastana" (Middle Brahmi script: Gupta ashoka ss.svg ashoka sta.jpgGupta ashoka n.svg Ṣa-sta-na). Mathura Museum.
Silver coin of Rudradaman I (130–150). Obv: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO". Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap Jayadaman" 16mm, 2.0 grams.
The Junagadh rock contains inscriptions of Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I (the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman)and Skandagupta.
A coin dated to the beginning of the first reign of Jivadaman, in the year 100 (One hundred in the Brahmi script of the Western Satraps.jpg) of the Saka Era (corresponding to 178 CE).
Brāhmī numerals
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (178–197).
Obv: Bust of Rudrasimha, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." (Indo-Greek style).
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit legend in Brahmi script: Rudrasimha_I,_Brahmi_legend_on_coinage.jpg "King and Great Satrap Rudrasimha, son of King and Great Satrap Rudradaman".
Rudrasena II (256-278 CE). Head right, wearing close-fitting cap / Three-arched hill; group of five pellets to right.
Head of Buddha Shakyamuni, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400). Derived from the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, an example of the Western Indian art of the Western Satraps.
Location of the Sasanian coinage of Sindh, circa 400 CE, in relation with the other polities of the time.
Coin of the last Western Satrap ruler Rudrasimha III (388–395).
The victorious Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II (412-413 CE).
Coin of Damasena. The minting date, here 153 (100-50-3 in [[:File:Brahmi numeral signs.svg|Brahmi script numerals]]) of the Saka era, therefore 232 CE, clearly appears behind the head of the king.
An imitation of Western Satrap coinage: silver coin of king Dahrasena (c. 415–455 CE), of the Traikutaka dynasty.
The inscription of Ushavadata, son-in-law of Nahapana, runs the length of the entrance wall of one of the Nasik caves, over the doors, and is here visible in parts between the pillars. Actual image, and corresponding rubbing. Cave No.10, Nasik Caves.
The Junagadh rock inscription, inscribed by Rudradaman I circa 150 CE, is "the first long inscription recorded entirely in more or less standard Sanskrit".
The Western Satraps (orange) and the Kushan Empire (green), in the 2nd century CE
10px
10px
Genealogical table of the Western Satraps
Hall of the Great Chaitya Cave at Karla (120 CE)
Right row of columns
Chaitya roof
Capitals
Donative inscription by a Yavana ("Indo-Greek") named Vitasamghata.<ref>Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.326 Inscription No1</ref>
Front
Veranda
Interior
Chaitya and Umbrellas
Inscription
Coin of Gupta ruler Chandragupta II (r.380–415) in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Kumaragupta I (r.414–455) (Western territories).
Coin of Gupta ruler Skandagupta (r.455-467), in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Buddhagupta (r.476–495) in Malwa, derived from the style of the Western Satraps.

Occasionally, the legends are in Sanskrit instead.

Shiva as the Lord of Dance

Natya Shastra

1 links

Sanskrit treatise on the performing arts.

Sanskrit treatise on the performing arts.

Shiva as the Lord of Dance
Natya Shastra in Thai art
The Natyasastra discusses dance and many other performing arts.
The Natyashastra influenced other arts in ancient and medieval India. The dancing Shiva sculpture in Badami cave temples (6th–7th century CE), for example, illustrates its dance movements and Lalatatilakam pose.

The root of the Sanskrit word Nāṭya is Naṭa (नट) which means "act, represent".

Germanic languages and main dialect groups

Germanic languages

4 links

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa.

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa.

Germanic languages and main dialect groups
Germanic - Romance language border: • Early Middle Ages • Early Twentieth Century
The approximate extent of Germanic languages in the early 10th century:
Old West Norse
Old East Norse
Old Gutnish
Old English (West Germanic)
Continental West Germanic languages (Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old Dutch, Old High German).
Crimean Gothic (East Germanic)

1) The sound changes known as Grimm's Law and Verner's Law, which shifted the values of all the Indo-European stop consonants (for example, original * became Germanic * in most cases; compare three with Latin tres, two with Latin duo, do with Sanskrit ). The recognition of these two sound laws were seminal events in the understanding of the regular nature of linguistic sound change and the development of the comparative method, which forms the basis of modern historical linguistics.

Tatsama

4 links

Tatsama (तत्सम, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Assamese, Bengali, Marathi, Odia, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam and Telugu.

A 20th-century artist's impression of Kālidāsa composing the Meghadūta

Kalidasa

0 links

A 20th-century artist's impression of Kālidāsa composing the Meghadūta
Śakuntalā stops to look back at Duṣyanta, Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906).

Kālidāsa (fl. 4th–5th century CE) was a Classical Sanskrit author who is often considered ancient India's greatest poet and playwright.

Tadbhava

4 links

(Sanskrit: तद्भव,, lit. "arising from that") is the Sanskrit word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, alongside tatsama and deśi words.

Sukadeva Gosvami addressing Pariksit.

Bhagavata Purana

1 links

One of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas).

One of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas).

Sukadeva Gosvami addressing Pariksit.
Depiction of Brahma's anger and the origin of Shiva from the former's eyebrows, when the Four Kumaras decide immediately to perform penance before helping their father in creation.
Vidura admonishes Dhritarashtra.
Vishnu appears before Dhruva
Rsabha.
230x230px
Nrsimha and Prahlada (R).
Vamana with Bali.
Parashurama
Hamsa
Kalki
Kapila Muni.
Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the Hindu Advaita Vedanta matha or monastery established by Adi Shankara.
135x135px
Chaitanya (1486–1534 CE)
Kuvalayapida Slain

Composed in Sanskrit by Veda Vyasa.

A murti of Parvati Ganesha in Maheshwar temple, Madhya Pradesh

Murti

3 links

A murti of Parvati Ganesha in Maheshwar temple, Madhya Pradesh
Goddess Durga and a pantheon of other gods and goddesses (Ganesh, Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Kartik) being worshipped during Durga Puja, North Kolkata
Men carving stone idols or murti. Mahabalipuram. 2010
A murti of mother goddess Matrika, from Rajasthan 6th century CE.
A collection of modern-day murti featuring the elephant-headed God, Lord Ganesha.
8th-century ivory murti parts from Kashmir. Numerous Hindu and Buddhist temples and sculpture in Kashmir were built and destroyed, during Indian subcontinent's Islamic rule period. During this period, some murti of Hindu deities were preserved in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries.
6th-century murti carvings, Badami caves, Karnataka.

Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, ISO: Mūrti; ) is a general term for an image, statue or idol of a deity or mortal in Hindu culture.

A bilingual sign in Malayalam and Latin script (English) at Changaramkulam, Malappuram, Kerala

Malayalam script

3 links

Brahmic script used commonly to write Malayalam, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 45 million people in the world.

Brahmic script used commonly to write Malayalam, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 45 million people in the world.

A bilingual sign in Malayalam and Latin script (English) at Changaramkulam, Malappuram, Kerala
The Quilon Syrian copper plates (849/850 CE) is the available oldest inscription written in Old Malayalam. Besides Old Malayalam, the copper plate also contains signatures in Arabic (Kufic script), Middle Persian (cursive Pahlavi script) and Judeo-Persian (standard square Hebrew) scripts.
A medieval Tigalari manuscript (Bears high similarity with modern Malayalam script)
251x251px
The Thunchath Ezhuthachan Malayalam University is situated at Thunchan Parambu, Tirur, Malappuram
Grantha, Tigalari and Malayalam scripts
Malayalam script in mobile phone
Malayalam letters
Words written in Malayalam script
A Malayalam sign. Notice the word-initial a അ in akkādami, and the vowel sign ē േ in Kēraḷa.
A signboard including Malayalam at Mina, Saudi Arabia
Malayalam vowel signs combined with letter ക (ka)
Malayalam letters on old Travancore Rupee coin
A Malayalam signboard from Kannur, Kerala. Malayalam is official language in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puduchery

It is one of 22 scheduled languages of India Malayalam script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Kerala.