A report on Saracen

Late 15th-century German woodcut depicting Saracens
12th-century Reliquary of Saint Stanislaus in the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków is an example of Saracen art from Sicily or Palestine.
Saracens landing on a coast, 915
Maugis fighting the Saracen Noiron in Aigremont, in Renaud de Montauban. David Aubert, Bruges, 1462-1470

Term used by European Christians during the Middle Ages to refer to Muslims—usually Arabs, Turks, and Iranians.

- Saracen
Late 15th-century German woodcut depicting Saracens

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The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).

Arabs

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The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco
The Qur'an is one of the most influential examples of Arabic literature

The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs, Muslims.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

It covered much of Western Europe but later succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, and Saracens from the south.

Banner of Tayy' as observed from the Battle of Siffin

Tayy

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Large and ancient Arab tribe, whose descendants today are the tribe of Shammar (and many other tribes), who continue to live throughout the Middle Eastern states of the Arab world and the rest of the world.

Large and ancient Arab tribe, whose descendants today are the tribe of Shammar (and many other tribes), who continue to live throughout the Middle Eastern states of the Arab world and the rest of the world.

Banner of Tayy' as observed from the Battle of Siffin

The Tayy were so widespread and influential throughout the Syrian Desert that Syriac authors from Mesopotamia used their name, Taienos, Tayenoi, Taiyaya or Tayyaye (ܛܝܝܐ), to describe Arab tribesmen in general in much the same way "Saracenos" was often used by authors from Byzantine Syria and Egypt as a generic term for Arabs.

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme

Muslims

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Abrahamic religion.

Abrahamic religion.

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme
World Muslim population by percentage ( from Pew Research Center)
A map of Muslim populations by absolute number

In Medieval Europe, Muslims were commonly called Saracens.

Cyprus

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Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian Peninsula.

Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian Peninsula.

A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Dhekelia Power Station
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Supreme Court of Justice
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Central Bank of Cyprus
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Limassol General Hospital
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
2010 population by age and gender
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Cypriot meze
Cypriot Halloumi
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.

In 1191, during the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens.

Map of the Mediterranean region around the time of the writing of the Teaching of Jacob

Teaching of Jacob

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The Teaching of Jacob (, Didaskalia Iakobou; Latin Doctrina Jacobi; Ethiopic Sargis d'Aberga), has a controversial dating from the early 7th century to the late 8th century.

The Teaching of Jacob (, Didaskalia Iakobou; Latin Doctrina Jacobi; Ethiopic Sargis d'Aberga), has a controversial dating from the early 7th century to the late 8th century.

Map of the Mediterranean region around the time of the writing of the Teaching of Jacob

When the candidatus [i.e., Sergios, commander of the Byzantine army in Palestine] was killed by the Saracens, I was at Caesarea and I set off by boat to Sykamina. People were saying "the candidatus has been killed," and we Jews were overjoyed. And they were saying that the prophet had appeared, coming with the Saracens, and that he was proclaiming the advent of the anointed one, the Christ who was to come. I, having arrived at Sykamina, stopped by a certain old man well-versed in scriptures, and I said to him: "What can you tell me about the prophet who has appeared with the Saracens?" He replied, groaning deeply: "He is false, for the prophets do not come armed with a sword. Truly they are works of anarchy being committed today and I fear that the first Christ to come, whom the Christians worship, was the one sent by God and we instead are preparing to receive the Antichrist. Indeed, Isaiah said that the Jews would retain a perverted and hardened heart until all the earth should be devastated. But you go, master Abraham, and find out about the prophet who has appeared." So I, Abraham, inquired and heard from those who had met him that there was no truth to be found in the so-called prophet, only the shedding of men's blood. He says also that he has the keys of paradise, which is incredible.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.

Indo-Saracenic architecture

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Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

Revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.

The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architectural style in Peshawar, Pakistan.
The Rambagh Palace in Jaipur reflecting Imperial Rajasthani architecture. Early 20th-century.
Aitchison College in Lahore with domed chhatris, jalis, chhajja below the balcony, and other features, reflective of Rajasthani architecture.
Vidhana Soudha, Bangalore incorporates elements of Indo-Saracenic and Dravidian styles. Constructed 1951–1956.
Sultan Abdul Samad Building in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, by Arthur Benison Hubback, 1910.
General Post Office (GPO), Kolkata
Ujjayanta Palace, Agartala
Esplanade Mansion, Kolkata
Building on B.B.D. Bagh, Kolkata
Metropolitan Building Façade, Kolkata
Albert Hall Museum, Jaipur
Jenkins School, Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar Palace, West Bengal
Ubudiah Mosque (Hubback, 1913), Kuala Kangsar, Perak
Jubilee Clock Tower in George Town, Penang
National Textile Museum in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback, 1905. Originally as offices for the Federated Malay States Railways.
The Old High Court Building in Kuala Lumpur
Old Kuala Lumpur Town Hall, Hubback, 1896-1904
Jamek Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, by Hubback
Railway Administration Building, Kuala Lumpur
Kellie's Castle, Batu Gajah, Perak
The Gateway of India
The Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai
Southern Railway Headquarters, Chennai
Mysore Palace
The National Art Gallery (Chennai)
Victoria Public Hall in Chennai
Senate House (University of Madras)
Mumbai GPO, reminiscent of the Gol Gumbaz
Khalsa College, Amritsar
Daly College, Indore
Chepauk Palace, Chennai
Kachiguda Railway Station, Hyderabad
Lucknow Charbagh Railway Station
Raj Bhavan (backview), Kolkata
Howrah Railway Station
Ahsan Manzil in Dhaka
Curzon Hall in Dhaka
Tajhat Palace in Rangpur
Natore Rajbari
Rose Garden Palace
Uttara Gonobhaban
Murapara Rajbari
Puthia Rajbari
Bangladesh Folk Arts and Crafts Foundation
Chittagong Court Building
Lahore Museum, Lahore
Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Building, Karachi, 1927-30
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Sadiq Dane High School, Bahawalpur
Patiala Block of King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building
Darbar Mahal, Bahawalpur
Multan Clock Tower, Multan
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Sezincote House, Gloucestershire, 1805
Royal Pavilion in Brighton, 1815–23
Western Pavilion in Brighton, 1828, designed by Amon Henry Wilds as his own home
Elephant Tea Rooms, Sunderland, 1877
Sassoon Mausoleum, now a chic Brighton supper club, 1892
Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque in Colombo
Jaffna Public Library in Jaffna
Jaffna Clock Tower in Jaffna
Original Honkan, Tokyo National Museum, by Josiah Conder, largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1923
Palais du Bardo, parc Montsouris, Paris

Saracen was a term used in the Middle Ages in Europe for the Arabic-speaking Muslim people of the Middle East and North Africa, and the term "Indo-Saracenic" was first used by the British to describe the earlier Indo-Islamic architecture of the Mughals and their predecessors, and often continued to be used in that sense.

The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture, illuminated by Simon Marmion.

The Song of Roland

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11th-century chanson de geste based on the Frankish military leader Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.

11th-century chanson de geste based on the Frankish military leader Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.

The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture, illuminated by Simon Marmion.
Bodleian Library, MS Digby 23, Part 2
Detail of manuscript showing "AOI" at the end of the second line
Roland blows his olifant (ivory hunting horn) to summon help in the midst the Battle of Roncevaux
The death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux, illuminated c. undefined 1455–1460 by Jean Fouquet.
Charlemagne finds Roland dead (14th-century miniature).
The replication of the sword found in the cliff-face next to Rocamadour's sanctuary.

Ganelon, who fears being murdered by the enemy and accuses Roland of intending this, takes revenge by informing the Saracens of a way to ambush the rear guard of Charlemagne's army, led by Roland, as the Franks re-enter Francia through the mountain passes.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")

Theodosius I

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Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")
Theodosius was commander of the army in Moesia I in 374. His dismissal may have been connected to the accession of the emperor Valentinian II, which took place at Aquincum (Budapest) in nearby Pannonia Valeria, in 375.
The administrative divisions of the Roman Empire in 395, under Theodosius I.
Solidus of Valentinian II showing Valentinian II and Theodosius I on the reverse, each holding a mappa
Head found near statue base dedicated to Theodosius, in the ancient city of Aphrodisias (Aydın, Turkey)
Roman provinces along the Ister (Danube), showing the Roman dioceses of Thrace, Dacia, Pannonia and Italia Annonaria on the empire's northern frontier
Solidus of Theodosius, showing both him and his co-emperor Valentinian II ((r. 375 – 392)) enthroned on the reverse, each crowned by Victory and together holding an orb ("the Victory of the Augusti")
Massacre in the Hippodrome of Thessaloniki in 390, 16th-century wood engraving
Anthonis Van Dyke's 1619 painting of St. Ambrose blocking the cathedral door, refusing Theodosius' admittance, a "pious fiction" invented by Theodoret.
Missorium of Theodosius, found in 1847 in Almendralejo, Spain
View of the Hippodrome of Constantinople with the surviving Obelisk of Theodosius
The Obelisk of Theodosius, details of the base of the Obelisk of Thutmose III, Hippodrome, Istanbul (8370192180)
Theodosius offers a laurel wreath to the victor, on the marble base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III at the Hippodrome of Constantinople.

Theodosius gathered a large army, including the Goths whom he had settled in the eastern empire as foederati, and Caucasian and Saracen auxiliaries, and marched against Eugenius.

Sarsens in a garden in Wiltshire

Sarsen

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Sarsen stones are silicified sandstone blocks found in quantity in Southern England on Salisbury Plain and the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire; in Kent; and in smaller quantities in Berkshire, Essex, Oxfordshire, Dorset, and Hampshire.

Sarsen stones are silicified sandstone blocks found in quantity in Southern England on Salisbury Plain and the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire; in Kent; and in smaller quantities in Berkshire, Essex, Oxfordshire, Dorset, and Hampshire.

Sarsens in a garden in Wiltshire

In the Middle Ages, "Saracen" was a common name for Muslims, and came by extension to be used for anything regarded as non-Christian, whether Muslim or pagan in contrast to Christianity.