Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah ChurchillDuchess of MarlboroughSarah, Duchess of MarlboroughSarah JenningsSarahDowager Duchess of MarlboroughSarah Churchill, Countess of MarlboroughCountess of MarlboroughDuchessLady Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (née Jenyns, spelled Jennings in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Anne, Queen of Great Britain.wikipedia
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John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
Sarah enjoyed a "long and devoted" relationship with her husband of more than 40 years, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.
His marriage to the hot-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's intimate friend – ensured Marlborough's rise, first to the Captain-Generalcy of British forces, then to a dukedom.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (née Jenyns, spelled Jennings in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Anne, Queen of Great Britain.
Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences.

Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough

HenriettaDuchess of MarlboroughHenrietta Godolphin (''née'' Churchill), 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
She had famous subsequent disagreements with many important people, including her daughter the second Duchess of Marlborough; the architect of Blenheim Palace, John Vanbrugh; Prime Minister Robert Walpole; King George II; and his wife, Queen Caroline.
Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, Princess of Mindelheim, Princess of Mellenburg, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Countess of Godolphin (19 July 1681 – 24 October 1733) was the daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, general of the army, and Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend and business manager of Queen Anne.

Blenheim Palace

BlenheimBlenheim EstateBlenheim Great Park
Sarah tirelessly campaigned on behalf of the Whigs, while also devoting much of her time to building projects such as Blenheim Palace.
In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings, and in April that year, he was sent by Charles II to The Hague to negotiate a convention on the deployment of the English army in Flanders.

Frances Talbot, Countess of Tyrconnell

FrancesFrances Jennings
James's first impressions were favourable, and in 1664 Sarah’s sister, Frances, was appointed maid of honour to the Duchess of York, Anne Hyde.
1647 – 9 March 1730) was a prominent figure in the Restoration court, together with her younger sister, Sarah Jennings.

Richard Jennings (politician)

Richard JenningsRichardSir Richard Jennings
She was the daughter of Richard Jennings (or Jenyns), a Member of Parliament, and Frances Thornhurst; her paternal grandfather was Sir John Jennings, father, by his wife Alice Spencer, of an extraordinarily large family.
He was the father of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, who was the confidante of Queen Anne.

Lady of the Bedchamber

Ladies of the Bedchamberstatsfrudame du palais
The Duke of York returned to England after the religious tension had eased, and Sarah was appointed a Lady of the Bedchamber to Anne after the latter's marriage in 1683.
Queen Anne appointed Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough to this position; the Duchess was widely considered an influential royal favourite.

Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of Marlborough
Although the new king and queen had awarded Sarah’s husband the title Earl of Marlborough, Sarah and John enjoyed considerably less favour than they had during the reign of James II. The new Earl of Marlborough had supported the now exiled James; and by this time Sarah’s influence on Anne, and her cultivation of high members of the government to promote Anne’s interests, was widely known.
In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings (1660–1744), a courtier and influential favourite of the queen.

John Jennings (St Albans MP)

Sir John JenningsJohn JenningsSir John Jennings of Sandridge
She was the daughter of Richard Jennings (or Jenyns), a Member of Parliament, and Frances Thornhurst; her paternal grandfather was Sir John Jennings, father, by his wife Alice Spencer, of an extraordinarily large family.
Sir John Jennings KB (died August 1642) was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1628 and 1642: he is now chiefly remembered as the grandfather of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough and of her nemesis Abigail Masham.

Mary II of England

Mary IIMaryQueen Mary II
She acted as Anne's agent after Anne's father, James II, was deposed during the Glorious Revolution; and she promoted her interests during the rule of James's successors, William III and Mary II.
As a result, she was criticised, by John Evelyn and Sarah Churchill, for appearing cold to her father's plight.

Martin Lister

Dr. Martin ListerLister
Her uncle (Martin Lister) was a prominent naturalist.
He was also the uncle of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough who corresponded with him throughout her life.

Holywell House, Hertfordshire

Holywell HouseHolywell
Sarah Jennings was born on 5 June 1660, probably at Holywell House, St Albans,
It passed through the Jennings family line, and Sarah Churchill (née Jenyns), Duchess of Marlborough was born here in 1660.

Glorious Revolution

Revolution of 1688Revolution1688
She acted as Anne's agent after Anne's father, James II, was deposed during the Glorious Revolution; and she promoted her interests during the rule of James's successors, William III and Mary II.
On 26 November, James's younger daughter, Anne, who doubted the authenticity of her new brother, and who was greatly influenced by Churchill's wife Sarah Churchill, did the same.

Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham

Abigail HillAbigail MashamAbigail
She pressed the heartbroken queen to move from Kensington to St James's Palace in London, which Anne bluntly refused, and instead commanded Sarah to call Abigail Masham to attend her.
16706 December 1734) was a favourite of Queen Anne and a cousin of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough.

St Albans

AlbanSt AlbanSt. Albans
Sarah Jennings was born on 5 June 1660, probably at Holywell House, St Albans,
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (1660–1744), wife of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and close friend of Queen Anne, was born in St Albans

Syon House

Syon ParkSyon
Anne responded by leaving the court as well, and Sarah and she went to stay with their friends Charles Seymour, the sixth Duke of Somerset, and Elizabeth, the Duchess of Somerset at Syon House.
After the future Queen Anne had a disagreement with her sister, Mary II (wife of William III, also known as William of Orange), over her friendship with Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough, Queen Mary evicted Princess Anne from her court residence at Whitehall and Hampton Court.

Mistress of the Robes

head lady-in-waitingMistressThe Mistress of the Robes
Sarah was promptly created Mistress of the Robes (the highest office in the royal court that could be held by a woman), Groom of the Stole, Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Ranger of Windsor Great Park.
1704–1710: Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

John Churchill, Marquess of Blandford

Jack ChurchillJohn, Marquess of BlandfordLord Churchill
Sarah was called to Cambridge in 1703, where her only surviving son, John, Marquess of Blandford, was taken ill with smallpox.
He was the heir apparent to the Dukedom of Marlborough – as the only surviving son of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, an accomplished general, and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, a close friend of Queen Anne.

Ranger of Windsor Great Park

Deputy Ranger of Windsor Great ParkRanger of the Great Park
Sarah was promptly created Mistress of the Robes (the highest office in the royal court that could be held by a woman), Groom of the Stole, Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Ranger of Windsor Great Park.
One of the most famous rangers was Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, who was given the position by her friend, Queen Anne, in 1702.

Lesbian

lesbianismlesbianssapphic
The passion she showed for Abigail, and the stubborn refusal to dismiss her, angered Sarah to the point that she implied that a lesbian affair was taking place between the two women.
Queen Anne was rumored to have a passionate relationship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, her closest adviser and confidante.

Keeper of the Privy Purse

Keeper of His Majesty's Privy PurseAssistant Keeper of the Privy PurseKeeper
Sarah was promptly created Mistress of the Robes (the highest office in the royal court that could be held by a woman), Groom of the Stole, Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Ranger of Windsor Great Park.
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough 1702–1711

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
Sarah tirelessly campaigned on behalf of the Whigs, while also devoting much of her time to building projects such as Blenheim Palace.
Anne herself grew increasingly uncomfortable with this dependence on the Whigs, especially as her personal relationship with the Duchess of Marlborough deteriorated.

Cockpit-in-Court

CockpitRoyal Cockpitthe Cockpit
James still retained some influence, and he ordered that both Lady Churchill and Princess Anne be placed under house arrest at Anne's residence (the Cockpit ) in the Palace of Whitehall; both their husbands, though previously loyal to James, had switched their allegiances to William of Orange.
Anne and her closest friend, Sarah, Lady Churchill were imprisoned here during the Glorious Revolution; both their husbands, Prince George of Denmark and John, Baron Churchill switched their allegiances from James II to William of Orange.

John Vanbrugh

Sir John VanbrughVanbrughJohn Vanburgh
She had famous subsequent disagreements with many important people, including her daughter the second Duchess of Marlborough; the architect of Blenheim Palace, John Vanbrugh; Prime Minister Robert Walpole; King George II; and his wife, Queen Caroline.
The Duchess, the formidable Sarah Churchill, particularly wanted Sir Christopher Wren.

Kensington Palace

KensingtonHereKensington Palace London
After the death of Anne's husband, Prince George of Denmark in 1708, Sarah arrived, uninvited, at Kensington Palace to find Anne with the prince's body.
Kensington Palace was also the setting of the final argument between Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough and Queen Anne.