Sardinian language

Sardiniansrdindigenous languagelanguagelingua sardamedieval Sardinian Romancemodern Romance languageSardSardo-CorsicanSards
Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru, limba sarda or lìngua sarda ) is a Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia.wikipedia
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Sardinia

SardegnaSardinia, ItalySardinian
Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru, limba sarda or lìngua sarda ) is a Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia.
Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century. A 1949 study by the Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, Italian 12%, Spanish 20%, Romanian 23.5%, Occitan 25%, Portuguese 31%, and French 44%.
Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages.

Sardinian medieval kingdoms

GiudicatiJudicatescuratoria
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.
The Judicates (judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian, judicati in Latin, regni or giudicati in Italian); in English also referred to as Sardinian Kingdoms, Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru, limba sarda or lìngua sarda ) is a Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia. Sardinian is considered the most conservative Romance language, and its substratum (Paleo-Sardinian or Nuragic) has also been researched. A 1949 study by the Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, Italian 12%, Spanish 20%, Romanian 23.5%, Occitan 25%, Portuguese 31%, and French 44%.

Paleo-Sardinian language

Paleo-SardinianNuragicProto-Sardinian language
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century. Sardinian is considered the most conservative Romance language, and its substratum (Paleo-Sardinian or Nuragic) has also been researched.
The old Sardinian language(s) is thought to have left traces in the island's onomastics as well as toponyms, which appear to preserve grammatical suffixes, and a number of words in the modern Romance language.

History of Sardinia

SardiniaRoman dominationSardinian
The Roman domination began in 238 and brought Latin to Sardinia, but was often contested by the local Sardinian tribes and proved unable to completely supplant the pre-Latin Sardinian languages, including Punic, which continued to be spoken in the 4th century as attested by votive inscriptions.
In the Early Middle Ages, through the European barbarian movements, the waning of the Byzantine Empire influence in the western Mediterranean and the Saracen raids, the island fell out of the sphere of influence of any higher government; this led to the birth of four independent kingdoms called Judicates (Latin: Judicati; Sardinian: Judicados) in the 8th through 10th centuries.

Linguistic conservatism

conservativearchaiclinguistically conservative
Sardinian is considered the most conservative Romance language, and its substratum (Paleo-Sardinian or Nuragic) has also been researched.
For example, Icelandic is, in some aspects, more similar to Old Norse than other languages that evolved from Old Norse, including Danish, Norwegian, or Swedish, while Sardinian is regarded by many linguists to be the most conservative Romance language.

Gesico

hebrew šēkār "ale") and tzípiri "rosemary" (from the Punic zibbir) are commonly used, especially in the modern Sardinian varieties of the Campidanese plain, while proceeding northwards the influence is more limited to place names, like Macumadas in the Province of Nuoro or Magumadas in Gesico and Nureci, which derive from the Punic maqom hadash "new city".
Gesico, Gèsigu in Sardinian language, is a comune (municipality) in the Province of South Sardinia in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 45 km north of Cagliari.

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.
Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, French, Spanish and Portuguese among others).

Jerzu

Some toponyms, such as Jerzu (thought to derive from the Greek khérsos, "untilled"), together with the personal names Mikhaleis, Konstantine and Basilis, demonstrate Greek influence.
Jerzu, (Sardinian: Jersu), is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Nuoro in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 70 km northeast of Cagliari and about 20 km southwest of Tortolì.

Sardinian people

SardiniansSardinianSardinian population
Sardinian or Sard (sardu/sadru, limba sarda or lìngua sarda ) is a Romance language spoken by the Sardinians on most of the island of Sardinia. During the mobilization for World War I, the Italian Army compelled all Sardinians to enlist as Italian subjects and established the Sassari Infantry Brigade on 1 March 1915 at Tempio Pausania and Sinnai.
Sardinia, with the exception of the innerlands and especially the mountainous area that would later be called Barbagia (Barbaria in Latin, due to the locals' refusal to assimilate during Roman rule), was heavily Latinized during the Roman period, and the modern Sardinian language is considered one of the most conservative Romance languages.

Marianus IV of Arborea

Marianus IVMariano IVMarianus IV the Great
The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in 1355–1376 by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" (judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian) Eleanor, was written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until 1827.
Marianus IV (in Sardinian: Marianu IV de Arbarèe, in Catalan: Marià IV d'Arborea, 1329 – 1376), called the Great, was the Judge (king) of Arborea, kingdom in the island of Sardinia, from 1347 to his death.

Eleanor of Arborea

EleanorEleonora of ArboreaEleonor of Arborea
The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in 1355–1376 by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" (judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian) Eleanor, was written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until 1827.
Eleanor of Arborea (Sardinian: Elianora de Arbaree, Italian: Eleonora d'Arborea; 1347—1404) was one of the most powerful and important, and one of the last, judges of Sardinia, and Sardinia's most famous heroine.

Condaghe

Condaghe di Santa Maria de Bonarcado
Evidence for this is found in the condaghes, the first written documents in Sardinian.
A condaghe ( also spelled as condache or condake, ; also fundaghe), from the medieval Sardinian term kondake (from ), was a kind of administrative document used in the Sardinian judicates between the 11th and 13th centuries.

Endangered language

endangeredmoribundendangered languages
However, the vitality of the Sardinian-speaking community is threatened, and UNESCO classifies the language as "definitely endangered", although an estimated 68.4 percent of the islanders reported to have a good oral command of Sardinian in 2007.

Sassarese language

SassareseSassarese SardinianSassarese varieties
People from the neighbouring island of Corsica began to settle in the northern Sardinian coast, leading to the birth of the Tuscan-sounding Sassarese and Gallurese.
Sassarese (Sassaresu or Turritanu) is an Italo-Dalmatian language and transitional variety between Sardinian and Corsican.

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languageDaco-Romanian
A 1949 study by the Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, Italian 12%, Spanish 20%, Romanian 23.5%, Occitan 25%, Portuguese 31%, and French 44%.
Romanian has a lexical similarity of 77% with Italian, 75% with French, 74% with Sardinian, 73% with Catalan, 72% with Portuguese and Rheto-Romance, 71% with Spanish.

Carta de Logu

The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in 1355–1376 by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" (judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian) Eleanor, was written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until 1827.
The Carta de Logu was a legal code of the Judicate of Arborea, written in the Sardinian language and promulgated by the juighissa ("Lady Judge") Eleanor of Arborea in 1392.

Nuraghe

nuraghiNuragicnuraghes
Some obscure Nuragic roots remained unchanged, and in many cases Latin accepted the local roots (like nur, presumably from Norax, which makes its appearance in nuraghe, Nurra, Nurri and many other toponyms).
A "tancadu" Nuraghe (Sardinian term for courtyard) represent the evolution of the Single Tower Nuraghes; to the main tower was added in a second time another circular building, connected to the original tower via two enclosing curtain walls, inside them there was a courtyard, sometimes provided with a well.

Minority language

minority languagesminoritylinguistic minorities
482/1999 with other eleven minoranze linguistiche storiche ("historical linguistic minorities"), among which Sardinian stands out as the numerically biggest, even if continuously decreasing.

Sinnai

During the mobilization for World War I, the Italian Army compelled all Sardinians to enlist as Italian subjects and established the Sassari Infantry Brigade on 1 March 1915 at Tempio Pausania and Sinnai.
Sinnai, Sìnnia in Sardinian language, is a comune (municipality) of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 12 km northeast of Cagliari.

Cagliari

CaralisCastel di CastroCagliari, Italy
We also have some religious works by Saint Lucifer and Eusebius, both from Caralis (Cagliari).
Winds are frequent, especially the mistral and sirocco; in summer a marine sirocco breeze (called s'imbattu in Sardinian language) lowers the temperature and brings some relief from the heat.

Sardinian nationalism

Sardinian nationalistSardistindependentist
Following tensions and claims of the Sardinian nationalist movement for concrete cultural and political autonomy, including the recognition of the Sardinians as an ethnic and linguistic minority, three separate bills were presented to the Regional Council in the '80s.
Sardinian nationalism or also Sardism (Sardismu in Sardinian, Sardismo in Italian ) is a social, cultural and political movement in Sardinia calling for national devolution, further autonomy, or even outright independence, from Italy.

Su patriotu sardu a sos feudatarios

Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios
The most famous literary product born out of such political unrest was the poem Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios, noted as a testament of the French-inspired democratic and patriotic values, as well as Sardinia's situation under feudalism.
The anthem was written in Sardinian language by the lawyer Francesco Ignazio Mannu (Frantziscu Ignàtziu Mannu) on the occasion of Sardinian revolution, a series of mass revolts (1793–1796) against the Savoyard feudal system, long since abandoned by Western European powers, that culminated with the execution or expulsion from the island of the officials of the ruling House of Savoy on 28 April 1794 (officially commemorated today as Sa die de sa Sardigna, "Sardinian people's day" ).

Cantu a tenore

tenoresa tenoretenore
In the 1990s, there had been a resurgence of Sardinian-language music, ranging from the more traditional genres (cantu a tenore, cantu a chiterra, gosos etc.) to rock (Kenze Neke, Askra, Tzoku, Tazenda etc.) and even hip hop and rap (Dr. Drer e CRC Posse, Quilo, Sa Razza, Malam, Su Akru, Menhir, Stranos Elementos, Malos Cantores, Randagiu Sardu, Futta etc.), and with artists who used the language as a means to promote the island and address its long-standing issues and the new challenges.
The cantu a tenòre (also known in Sardinian language as su tenòre, su cuncòrdu, su cuntràttu, su cussèrtu, s'agorropamèntu, su cantu a pròa) or canto a tenore in Italian is a style of polyphonic folk singing characteristic of the island of Sardinia (Italy), particularly the region of Barbagia, though some other Sardinian sub-regions bear examples of such tradition.