Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid EmpireSassanidsSassanid PersiaSassanianPersianSasaniansSassanian EmpirePersia
The Sasanian Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānshahr), also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam.wikipedia
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Iran (word)

IranĒrānEranshahr
The Sasanian Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānshahr), also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam.
The modern Persian name of Iran derives immediately from the 3rd-century Sasanian Middle Persian (Pahlavi spelling: ʼyrʼn), where it initially meant "of the Iranians", but soon also acquired a geographical connotation in the sense of "(lands inhabited by) Iranians".

Ardashir I

ArdashirArdeshir IArdashir I of Persia
The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥, Modern Persian: اردشیر بابکان, '), also known as Ardashir the Unifier''' (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

Middle Persian

PahlaviPersianMiddle-Persian
The Sasanian Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānshahr), also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Officially, the Empire was known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: ērānšahr, Parthian: aryānšahr); the term is first attested in the Great Inscription of Shapur I, where the king says "I am the ruler of Empire of Iranians" (Middle Persian: ērānšahr xwadāy hēm, Parthian: aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm).
Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym as Pārsīk (or Pārsīg in its later form), is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BCE, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.

Armenia

ArmenianRepublic of ArmeniaARM
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century.

United Arab Emirates

UAEEmiratiUnited Arab Emirates (UAE)
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba.

House of Sasan

SassanidSassanid dynastySassanians
Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD.
The House of Sasan was the house that founded the Sasanian Empire, ruling this empire from 224 to 651.

Tajikistan

TadjikistanTajikRepublic of Tajikistan
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Khanate of Bukhara, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan

UzbekUZBRepublic of Uzbekistan
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The area was incorporated into the Iranian Achaemenid Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Iranian Parthian Empire and later by the Sasanian Empire, until the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century.

Shapur I

ShapurShapour Iking
Officially, the Empire was known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: ērānšahr, Parthian: aryānšahr); the term is first attested in the Great Inscription of Shapur I, where the king says "I am the ruler of Empire of Iranians" (Middle Persian: ērānšahr xwadāy hēm, Parthian: aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm).
Shapur I (New Persian: شاپور), also known as Shapur the Great, was the second Sasanian King of Kings of Iran.

Qatar

QatariState of QatarQAT
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf.

Oman

Sultanate of OmanOmaniOmani Empire
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
Mazoon, a Persian name used to refer to Oman's region, which was part of the Sasanian Empire.

Azerbaijan

Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century.

Islamization of Iran

IslamizedConversion to Islamdeclined
The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the Islamization of Iran.
After the Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire, during the 90-year long reign of the Ummayad dynasty, the Arab conquerors tried to impose Arabic as the primary language of the subject peoples throughout their empire.

Lebanon

LebaneseLebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Sasanid Persian empires.

Shapur I's inscription at the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht

Res Gestae Divi Saporisinscriptionin the inscription at Ka'ba-ye Zartosht
Officially, the Empire was known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: ērānšahr, Parthian: aryānšahr); the term is first attested in the Great Inscription of Shapur I, where the king says "I am the ruler of Empire of Iranians" (Middle Persian: ērānšahr xwadāy hēm, Parthian: aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm).
Shapur I's Ka'ba-ye Zartosht inscription, also referred to as The Great Inscription of Shapur I, ŠKZ, SKZ, or Res Gestae Divi Saporis (RGDS), refers to an important trilingual inscription made during the reign of the Persian Sasanian king Shapur I ((r.

Ardashir-Khwarrah

Ardashir Khurrah
Once Ardashir was appointed shah (King), he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur, modern day Firuzabad).
Ardashir-Khwarrah (Middle Persian: Arđaxšēr-Xwarra, meaning "glory of Ardashir") was one of the four (later five) administrative divisions of the Sasanian province of Pars.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
This empire, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empire, ruled most of the territory of present-day Turkey until the Late Middle Ages; although the eastern regions remained in firm Sasanian hands up to the first half of the seventh century.

Persian Empire

PersianPersiaPersians
The Sasanian Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānshahr), also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam.
From 247 BC to 224 AD, Persia was ruled by the Parthian Empire, which supplanted the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, and then by the Sassanian Empire, which ruled up until the mid-7th century.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.
The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassanids in the 3rd century CE, though the Indo-Sassanids continued to rule at least parts of the region.

Susa

ShushanSusianaSeleucia ad Eulaeum
After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana and Mesene.
Susa (Persian: Šuš; ; Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα ; Šuš; Middle Persian: 𐭮𐭥𐭱𐭩 Sūš, 𐭱𐭥𐭮 Šūs; Old Persian: Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings" (the inscriptions mention Adhur-Anahid as his Banbishnan banbishn, "Queen of Queens", but her relationship with Ardashir has not been fully established), bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, and beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule.
Ctesiphon served as a royal capital of the Persian Empire in the Parthian and Sasanian eras for over eight hundred years.

Pabag

PapakBabakPāpag
Papak was originally the ruler of a region called Khir.
He was the father (or stepfather) of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

Banbishn

Banbishnan banbishnAdhur-AnahidBanebshenan banebshen
Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings" (the inscriptions mention Adhur-Anahid as his Banbishnan banbishn, "Queen of Queens", but her relationship with Ardashir has not been fully established), bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, and beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule.
Bānbishn was a Middle Persian title meaning "queen", and was held by royal women in Sasanian Iran who were the king's daughters and sisters, and also by the consorts of the Sasanian princes that ruled parts of the country as governors.