Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellitesartificial Earth satelliteEarth observation satellitesatellite servicescientific satellitesspace satelliteartificialdirect-to-home satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.wikipedia
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Sputnik 1

SputniksatelliteEarth's first artificial satellite
On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer.
Sputnik 1 ( or ; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

Space debris

orbital debrisspace junkdebris
According to a 2018 estimate, some 4,900 remain in orbit, of those about 1,900 were operational; while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris.
These include old satellites and spent rocket stages, as well as the fragments from their disintegration and collisions.

Spaceflight

space travelspace flightspace transport
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites.

Earth observation satellite

Earth observationenvironmental satelliteremote sensing satellite
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Earth observation satellites are satellites intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)
Earth observation satellites or Earth remote sensing satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

Weather satellite

satellitemeteorological satelliteWeather
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

Space station

space stationsorbital stationstation
Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a Space craft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.

Polar orbit

polarpolar-orbitingnear-polar
Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Crewed spacecraft (spaceships) are large satellites able to put humans into (and beyond) an orbit, and return them to Earth. Spacecraft including spaceplanes of reusable systems have major propulsion or landing facilities. They can be used as transport to and from the orbital stations.
Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit.
Rockets are now used for fireworks, weaponry, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight, and space exploration.

Space Race

Space Explorationspace programSputnik-era
This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States.
The Space Race spawned pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, uncrewed space probes of the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon.

Arthur C. Clarke

Sir Arthur C. ClarkeClarkeSir Arthur Clarke
In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (1917–2008) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.
In 1945, he proposed a satellite communication system using geostationary orbits.

Explorer 1

Explorereventually flewfirst American satellite
But finally, three months after Sputnik 2, the project succeeded; Explorer 1 became the United States' first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States, and was part of the U.S. participation in the International Geophysical Year.

Orbital speed

orbital velocityorbital velocitiesspeed
He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid propellants could achieve this.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.

Communications satellite

satellitesatellite communicationscommunication satellite
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke (1917–2008) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications. With growth in geosynchronous (GEO) satellite communication, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

United States Space Surveillance Network

GEODSSUS Space Surveillance NetworkSpace Surveillance
In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the Air Force used resources of the United States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-orbiting satellites. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I.
The United States Space Surveillance Network detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting Earth, e.g. active/inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, or fragmentation debris.

Project Vanguard

VanguardVanguard satelliteeleven attempts
This became known as Project Vanguard.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
Currently the largest artificial satellite ever is the International Space Station.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

Sputnik crisis

SputnikSputnik momentalarms the United States government
The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the Soviets' launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Bodies which are gravitationally bound to one of the planets in a planetary system, either natural or artificial satellites, follow orbits about a barycenter near or within that planet.

Comparison of satellite buses

SSTL-100I-1 Ksingle model platforms
With growth in geosynchronous (GEO) satellite communication, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses.
This page includes a list of satellite buses, of which multiple similar artificial satellites have been, or are being, built to the same model of structural frame, propulsion, spacecraft power and intra-spacecraft communication.

Space Age

space-ageadvent of spaceflight technology
The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I.
This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg. The launch of Sputnik 1 ushered in a new era of political, scientific and technological achievements that became known as the Space Age.

Spacecraft propulsion

propulsionrocket propulsionspace propulsion
Crewed spacecraft (spaceships) are large satellites able to put humans into (and beyond) an orbit, and return them to Earth. Spacecraft including spaceplanes of reusable systems have major propulsion or landing facilities. They can be used as transport to and from the orbital stations.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

Earth Observing System

EOSEarth Observing System (EOS)
Earth observation satellites are satellites intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)
The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans.

Small satellite

nanosatellitemicrosatellitemicrosatellites
Miniaturized satellites are satellites of unusually low masses and small sizes. New classifications are used to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500–100 kg), microsatellite (below 100 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).
Small satellites, miniaturized satellites, or smallsats, are satellites of low mass and size, usually under 500 kg. While all such satellites can be referred to as "small", different classifications are used to categorize them based on mass.

List of spacecraft called Sputnik

SputnikSputnik IKorbal-Sputnik
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer.
Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to go into orbit, launched 4 October 1957