Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellitesartificial Earth satellitesatellite serviceresearch satellitescientific satellitesspace satelliteEarth observation satelliteartificial
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit.wikipedia
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Sputnik 1

SputniksatelliteEarth's first artificial satellite
On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1.
Sputnik 1 ( or ; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

Space debris

orbital debrisspace junkdebris
Of those about 1,900 were operational, while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris.
MMOD includes old satellites and spent rocket stages, as well as the fragments from their disintegration and collisions.

Spaceflight

space travelspace flightspace transport
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Examples of uncrewed spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites.

Earth observation satellite

Earth observationenvironmental satelliteEarth observation satellites
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.
An Earth observation satellite or Earth remote sensing satellite is a satellite used or designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

Weather satellite

satellitemeteorological satelliteWeather
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.
A type of artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.

Satellite constellation

constellationsatellite constellationsconstellations
Satellites can operate by themselves or as part of a larger system, a satellite formation or satellite constellation.
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working together as a system.

Polar orbit

polarpolar-orbitingnear-polar
Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.

Satellite formation flying

clustersformation maintenancesatellite formation
Satellites can operate by themselves or as part of a larger system, a satellite formation or satellite constellation.
Satellite formation flying is the concept that multiple satellites can work together in a group to accomplish the objective of one larger, usually more expensive, satellite.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit.
Rockets are now used for fireworks, weaponry, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight, and space exploration.

Arthur C. Clarke

Arthur C ClarkeSir Arthur C. ClarkeClarke
In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.
In 1945, he proposed a satellite communication system using geostationary orbits.

Project Vanguard

VanguardVanguard projectVanguard satellite
This became known as Project Vanguard.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.

Explorer 1

Explorer IExplorerExplorer-1
Explorer 1 became the United States' first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States, and was part of the U.S. participation in the International Geophysical Year.

United States Space Surveillance Network

GEODSSSpace Surveillance NetworkGround-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance
In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the United States Space Surveillance Network cataloged 115 Earth-orbiting satellites. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I.
The United States Space Surveillance Network detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting Earth, e.g. active/inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, or fragmentation debris.

Communications satellite

satellite communicationssatellitecommunication satellite
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
Currently the largest artificial satellite ever is the International Space Station.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit.

Orbital speed

orbital velocityorbital velocitiesspeed
He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could achieve this.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is or relative to its center of mass.

Vanguard (rocket)

VanguardVanguard rocketProject Vanguard
The army used the Jupiter C rocket, while the civilian/Navy program used the Vanguard rocket to launch a satellite.
The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit.

Sputnik crisis

SputnikSputnik momentalarms the United States government
The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the Soviets' launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.

Comparison of satellite buses

SSTL-100Ball Configurable Platform 100I-1 K
With advancements in technology, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses.
This page includes a list of satellite buses, of which multiple similar artificial satellites have been, or are being, built to the same model of structural frame, propulsion, spacecraft power and intra-spacecraft communication.

Launch vehicle

carrier rocketlaunch systemspace launch vehicle
A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit.
Payloads include crewed spacecraft, satellites, robotic spacecraft, scientific probes, landers, rovers, and many more.

Space Age

space-ageadvent of spaceflight technologyspace
The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I.
This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Bodies which are gravitationally bound to one of the planets in a planetary system, either natural or artificial satellites, follow orbits about a barycenter near or within that planet.

Spacecraft propulsion

propulsionrocket propulsionspace propulsion
The attitude and orbit control subsystem consists of sensors to measure vehicle orientation, control laws embedded in the flight software, and actuators (reaction wheels, thrusters).
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

International Geophysical Year

IGYearly polar expeditionsG.O. Fizzickle
In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958.
Both the Soviet Union and the U.S. launched artificial satellites for this event; the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, launched on October 4, 1957, was the first successful artificial satellite.