A report on Satellite

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A 1949 issue of Popular Science depicts the idea of an "artificial moon"
Animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit.
1U CubeSat ESTCube-1, developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu, carries out a tether deployment experiment in low Earth orbit.
MMSS Inmarsat-3 satellite locations
The Hubble Space Telescope
International Space Station
Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station (ISS).
Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.
The growth of all tracked objects in space over time
Six Earth observation satellites comprising the A-train satellite constellation as of 2014.
GOES-8, a United States weather satellite.
Composite satellite image of the Earth, showing its entire surface in equirectangular projection
RapidEye Earth exploration-satellite system in action around the Earth.
Two CubeSats orbiting around Earth after being deployed from the ISS Kibō module's Small Satellite Orbital Deployer
orbital launch and satellite operation
satellite operation, launched by foreign supplier
satellite in development
orbital launch project at advanced stage or indigenous ballistic missiles deployed
Firing of Deep Space 1 's ion thruster
The International Space Station's black solar panels on the left and white radiators on the right
Deployment of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite on STS-41-G, collecting data on Earth's weather and climate

Object intentionally placed into orbit in outer space.

- Satellite
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Sputnik 1

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This metal arming key is the last remaining piece of the Sputnik 1 satellite. It prevented contact between the batteries and the transmitter prior to launch. It is on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.
30k USSR stamp depicting Sputnik 1 orbiting the Earth, the Earth orbiting the Sun and the Sun orbiting the centre of the Milky Way galaxy
Some R-7 variants
Exploded view
Artist's impression of Sputnik 1 in orbit
"BEEP ... BEEP ... To Bob's" spaceship ad spoofs Sputnik in the California Institute of Technology yearbook of 1958.
A Soviet 40 kopeks stamp, showing the satellite's orbit
Sputnik 1, Sergei Korolev and Valentin Glushko on a 2007 Ukrainian stamp
The flag of Kaluga, featuring Sputnik 1
Sputnik replica in Spain

Sputnik 1 (see § Etymology) was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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Low Earth orbit

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Orbit around Earth with a period of 128 minutes or less (making at least 11.25 orbits per day) and an eccentricity less than 0.25.

Orbit around Earth with a period of 128 minutes or less (making at least 11.25 orbits per day) and an eccentricity less than 0.25.

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Earth observation satellites, also known as remote sensing satellites, including spy satellites and other Earth imaging satellites, use LEO as they are able to see the surface of the Earth more clearly by being closer to it. A majority of artificial satellites are placed in LEO. Satellites can also take advantage of consistent lighting of the surface below via Sun-synchronous LEO orbits at an altitude of about 800 km and near polar inclination. Envisat (2002–2012) is one example.

A U.S. Space Force Extremely High Frequency communications satellite relays secure communications for the United States and other allied countries.

Communications satellite

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A U.S. Space Force Extremely High Frequency communications satellite relays secure communications for the United States and other allied countries.
Replica of Sputnik 1
The Atlas-B with SCORE on the launch pad; the rocket (without booster engines) constituted the satellite.
Geostationary orbit
An Iridium satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

The GPS constellation calls for 24 satellites to be distributed equally among six orbital planes. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 40°N, changes with time.

Satellite constellation

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The GPS constellation calls for 24 satellites to be distributed equally among six orbital planes. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 40°N, changes with time.
A bright artificial satellite flare is visible above the Very Large Telescope. Satellite constellations could have an impact on ground-based astronomy.

A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working together as a system.

NASA

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Independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil space program, aeronautics research, and space research.

Independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil space program, aeronautics research, and space research.

X-15 in powered flight
L. Gordon Cooper, photographed by a slow-scan television camera aboard Faith 7 (May 16, 1963)
Richard Gordon performs a spacewalk to attach a tether to the Agena Target Vehicle on Gemini 11, 1966
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, 1969 (photograph by Neil Armstrong)
Skylab in 1974, seen from the departing Skylab 4 CSM.
Soviet and American crews with spacecraft model, 1975.
Launch of at the start of STS-120.
The International Space Station as seen from during STS-134.
Artist's rendering of Altair lander landed on the Moon.
Artemis program logo
Administrator Bill Nelson
Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
NASA logo at JPL on November 17, 2020
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies of Columbia University in New York City
William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James E. Webb (background) discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
NASA's budget from 1958 to 2012 as a percentage of federal budget
An artist's conception, from NASA, of an astronaut planting a US flag on Mars. A human mission to Mars has been discussed as a possible NASA mission since the 1960s.
NASA EDGE broadcasting live from White Sands Missile Range in 2010
Space Force Delta
Langley Research Center
Ames Research Center wind tunnels
Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Cañada Flintridge, California
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama
Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston
John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida
Various nebulae observed from a NASA space telescope
1 Ceres
Pluto
Hardware comparison of Apollo, Gemini, and Mercury{{refn|group= note|From left to right: Launch vehicle of Apollo (Saturn 5), Gemini (Titan 2) and Mercury (Atlas). Left, top-down: Spacecraft of Apollo, Gemini and Mercury. The Saturn IB and Mercury-Redstone launch vehicles are left out.}}
Hubble Space Telescope, astronomy observatory in Earth orbit since 1990. Also visited by the Space Shuttle.
James Webb Space Telescope
Curiosity rover, roving Mars since 2012
Perseverance rover
Orion spacecraft
Space Launch System rocket
Lunar Gateway space station
Concept of cargo transport from Space Shuttle to Nuclear Shuttle, 1960s
Space Tug concept, 1970s
Vision mission for an interstellar precursor spacecraft by NASA, 2000s
Langley's Mars Ice Dome design for a Mars habitat, 2010s

After the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts.

Two geostationary satellites in the same orbit

Geostationary orbit

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Circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km in altitude above Earth's Equator (42,164 km in radius from Earth's center) and following the direction of Earth's rotation.

Circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 km in altitude above Earth's Equator (42,164 km in radius from Earth's center) and following the direction of Earth's rotation.

Two geostationary satellites in the same orbit
A 5° × 6° view of a part of the geostationary belt, showing several geostationary satellites. Those with inclination 0° form a diagonal belt across the image; a few objects with small inclinations to the Equator are visible above this line. The satellites are pinpoint, while stars have created star trails due to Earth's rotation.
Syncom 2, the first geosynchronous satellite
Service areas of satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS).
A computer-generated image of space debris. Two debris fields are shown: around geostationary space and low Earth orbit.
Comparison of geostationary Earth orbit with GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and Compass (medium Earth orbit) satellite navigation system orbits with the International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope and Iridium constellation orbits, and the nominal size of the Earth. The Moon's orbit is around 9 times larger (in radius and length) than geostationary orbit.

The concept of a geostationary orbit was popularised by the science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in the 1940s as a way to revolutionise telecommunications, and the first satellite to be placed in this kind of orbit was launched in 1963.

Explorer 1

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The satellite Explorer 1 is mated to its booster at LC-26.
Explorer 1 schematic
William Hayward Pickering, James Van Allen, and Wernher von Braun display a full-scale model of Explorer 1 at a crowded news conference in Washington, D.C. after confirmation the satellite was in orbit.

Explorer 1 was the first satellite launched by the United States in 1958 and was part of the U.S. participation in the International Geophysical Year (IGY).

A remote camera captures a close-up view of an RS-25 during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi.

Spacecraft propulsion

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A remote camera captures a close-up view of an RS-25 during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi.
Bipropellant rocket engines of the Apollo Lunar Module reaction control system (RCS)
Artist's concept of a solar sail
This test engine accelerates ions using electrostatic forces
SpaceX's Kestrel engine is tested
6 kW Hall thruster in operation at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
NASA study of a solar sail. The sail would be half a kilometer wide.
Artist's conception of a warp drive design
A successful proof of concept Lightcraft test, a subset of beam-powered propulsion.
A test version of the Mars Pathfinder airbag system

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

A computer-generated image representing the locations, but not relative sizes, of space debris as could be seen from high Earth orbit. The two main debris fields are the ring of objects in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and the cloud of objects in low Earth orbit (LEO).

Space debris

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Defunct human-made objects in space—principally in Earth orbit—which no longer serve a useful function.

Defunct human-made objects in space—principally in Earth orbit—which no longer serve a useful function.

A computer-generated image representing the locations, but not relative sizes, of space debris as could be seen from high Earth orbit. The two main debris fields are the ring of objects in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and the cloud of objects in low Earth orbit (LEO).
Gabbard diagram of almost 300 pieces of debris from the disintegration of the five-month-old third stage of the Chinese Long March 4 booster on 11 March 2000
Baker-Nunn cameras were widely used to study space debris.
Objects in Earth orbit including fragmentation debris. November 2020 NASA:ODPO
Satellite hit by a space debris, animation by ESA
Vanguard 1 is expected to remain in orbit for 240 years.
A drifting thermal blanket photographed in 1998 during STS-88.
Spent upper stage of a Delta II rocket, photographed by the XSS 10 satellite
Orbit of 2020 SO
Known orbit planes of Fengyun-1C debris one month after the weather satellite's disintegration by the Chinese ASAT
A micrometeoroid left this crater on the surface of 's front window on STS-7.
's lower starboard wing and Thermal Protection System tiles, photographed on STS-114 during an R-Bar Pitch Manoeuvre where astronauts examine the TPS for any damage during ascent
had a major impact on its radiator during STS-118. The entry hole is about 5.5 mm, and the exit hole is twice as large.
Debris impacts on Mir solar panels degraded their performance. The damage is most noticeable on the panel on the right, which is facing the camera with a high degree of contrast. Extensive damage to the smaller panel below is due to impact with a Progress spacecraft.
Saudi officials inspect a crashed PAM-D module in January 2001.
The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is an important source of information on small-particle space debris.
Spatial density of LEO space debris by altitude, according to 2011 a NASA report to the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
Spatial density of space debris by altitude according to ESA MASTER-2001, without debris from the Chinese ASAT and 2009 collision events

Space debris began to accumulate in Earth orbit immediately with the first launch of an artificial satellite Sputnik 1 into orbit in October 1957.

An animation showing low eccentricity orbits (circle, in red), and high eccentricity orbits (ellipse, in purple)

Orbit

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An animation showing low eccentricity orbits (circle, in red), and high eccentricity orbits (ellipse, in purple)
Newton's cannonball, an illustration of how objects can "fall" in a curve

In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an artificial satellite around an object or position in space such as a planet, moon, asteroid, or Lagrange point.