Satellite navigation

navigation satelliteNavigationglobal navigation satellite systemsatellite navigation systemGNSSsatnavglobal navigation satellite systemssatellite navigation systemsnavigation satellitessat nav
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.wikipedia
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Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.

GLONASS

Global Navigation Satellite SystemGLONASS GPSGLONASS K
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС, ; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration ), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.

Real-time kinematic

RTKRTK GPShigh precision mapping
Local GBAS typified by a single GPS reference station operating Real Time Kinematic (RTK) corrections.
Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems, GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.

Time signal

radio time signaltime servicetime gun
It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.
The telegraphic distribution of time signals was made obsolete by the use of AM, FM, shortwave radio, Internet Network Time Protocol servers as well as atomic clocks in satellite navigation systems.

Transit (satellite)

TransitAN/UYK-1TRANSIT system
The first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by the US military in the 1960s.
The Transit system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020.
Currently Russia has completed the GLONASS satellite navigation system.

Differential GPS

DGPSDifferential Global Positioning Systemposition information
Continental scale Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) for example the Australian GRAS and the joint US Coast Guard, Canadian Coast Guard, US Army Corps of Engineers and US Department of Transportation National Differential GPS (DGPS) service. GNSS augmentation is a method of improving a navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, Differential GPS, GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and inertial navigation systems.
The advent of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) could provide greatly improved accuracy and performance at a fraction of the cost.

GNSS positioning calculation

positioning method
Several such measurements can be made at the same time to different satellites, allowing a continual fix to be generated in real time using an adapted version of trilateration: see GNSS positioning calculation for details.
The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning for receiver's position is derived through the calculation steps, or algorithm, given below.

Atomic clock

atomic clocksatomiccaesium clock
The satellite uses an atomic clock to maintain synchronization of all the satellites in the constellation.
Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS.

China

🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020.
China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012, and is planned to offer global coverage by 2020.

Galileo (satellite navigation)

GalileoGalileo positioning systemGalileo project
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020.
Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that went live in 2016, created by the European Union (EU) through the European GNSS Agency (GSA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy.

Omega (navigation system)

OMEGAOMEGA Navigation SystemChabrier Omega transmitter
The DECCA, LORAN, GEE and Omega systems used terrestrial longwave radio transmitters which broadcast a radio pulse from a known "master" location, followed by a pulse repeated from a number of "slave" stations.
However, the United States Navy had a distinct need for just such a system, as they were in the process of introducing the TRANSIT satellite navigation system.

Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.
All satellite navigation systems use satellites with precision clocks.

Radio navigation

radio navigation aidradionavigationnavaids
Ground based radio navigation has long been practiced.
The latest transponder systems (mode S) can also provide position information, possibly derived from GNSS, allowing for even more precise positioning of targets.

BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

BeiDouBDSBeiDou-2
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020. Regional Satellite Navigation Systems such as China's Beidou, India's NAVIC, and Japan's proposed QZSS.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.

Global Positioning System

GPSGlobal Positioning System (GPS)global positioning systems
A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS)., the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020.
It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

GNSS augmentation

SBASsatellite based augmentation systemGround-Based Augmentation System
GNSS-1 is the first generation system and is the combination of existing satellite navigation systems (GPS and GLONASS), with Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) or Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS). In the United States, the satellite based component is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), in Europe it is the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), and in Japan it is the Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS). Ground based augmentation is provided by systems like the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS). GNSS augmentation is a method of improving a navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, Differential GPS, GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and inertial navigation systems.
Augmentation of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a method of improving the navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process.

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

IRNSSNAVICIndian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)
Regional Satellite Navigation Systems such as China's Beidou, India's NAVIC, and Japan's proposed QZSS.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit, Hindi and many other Indian languages and also standing for NAVigation with Indian Constellation), is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services.

GPS-aided GEO augmented navigation

GPS-aided geo-augmented navigation (GAGAN)GAGAN
Regional SBAS including WAAS (US), EGNOS (EU), MSAS (Japan) and GAGAN (India). GNSS augmentation is a method of improving a navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, Differential GPS, GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and inertial navigation systems.
It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals.

Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

QZSSMichibikiQZS-1
Regional Satellite Navigation Systems such as China's Beidou, India's NAVIC, and Japan's proposed QZSS.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

GNSS software-defined receiver

Software GNSS Receiver
A software GNSS receiver is a GNSS receiver that has been designed and implemented following the philosophy of Software-defined radio.

GNSS reflectometry

GPS reflectometryRemote Sensing
GNSS reflectometry
GNSS reflectometry involves making measurements from the reflections from the Earth of navigation signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems such as GPS.

MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System

GNSS augmentation is a method of improving a navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, Differential GPS, GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and inertial navigation systems.
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MTSAT or MSAS) is a Japanese satellite based augmentation system (SBAS), i.e. a satellite navigation system which supports differential GPS (DGPS) to supplement the GPS system by reporting (then improving) on the reliability and accuracy of those signals.

IRNSS-1E

1E
All seven satellites, IRNSS-1A, IRNSS-1B, IRNSS-1C, IRNSS-1D, IRNSS-1E, IRNSS-1F, and IRNSS-1G, of the proposed constellation were precisely launched on 1 July 2013, 4 April 2014, 16 October 2014, 28 March 2015, 20 January 2016, 10 March 2016 and 28 April 2016 respectively from Satish Dhawan Space Centre.
Satellite navigation

IRNSS-1B

1B
All seven satellites, IRNSS-1A, IRNSS-1B, IRNSS-1C, IRNSS-1D, IRNSS-1E, IRNSS-1F, and IRNSS-1G, of the proposed constellation were precisely launched on 1 July 2013, 4 April 2014, 16 October 2014, 28 March 2015, 20 January 2016, 10 March 2016 and 28 April 2016 respectively from Satish Dhawan Space Centre.
Satellite navigation