Satellite television

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Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.wikipedia
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Television show

television seriestelevision programseries
A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set.
A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.

Satellite dish

satellite dishesdishsatellite antenna
The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter.
The term most commonly means a dish used by consumers to receive direct-broadcast satellite television from a direct broadcast satellite in geostationary orbit.

Television receive-only

TVRObig ugly dishC-band
The first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only.
Television receive-only (TVRO) is a term used chiefly in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analog; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider.

Set-top box

set top boxset-top boxesSTB
Receivers can be external set-top boxes, or a built-in television tuner.
They are used in cable television, satellite television, and over-the-air television systems, as well as other uses.

Cable television

cablecable TVcable channel
It is usually the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service.
This contrasts with broadcast television (also known as terrestrial television), in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof.

High-definition television

HDTVhigh definitionHD
Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the significantly improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting.
HDTV is the current standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, Blu-rays, and streaming video.

Terrestrial television

Broadcastover-the-airterrestrial
It is usually the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service.
The term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television (direct broadcast satellite or DBS television), in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite, and cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable.

Pay television

pay TVsubscription televisionpay-TV
Some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption (pay television), requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming.
Pay television or subscription television are subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite television, but also increasingly via digital terrestrial and internet television.

Free-to-air

FTAfree to airfree
Some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption (pay television), requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming.
FTA also refers to channels and broadcasters providing content for which no subscription is expected, even though they may be delivered to the viewer/listener by another carrier for which a subscription is required, e.g. cable, satellite or the Internet.

Digital broadcasting

digital signaldigitaldigital broadcast
Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the significantly improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting.
Digital television broadcasting (especially satellite television) is widespread.

Ku band

K u bandK u -bandK u
Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the K u band frequencies (12–18 GHz) requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter.
K u band is primarily used for satellite communications, most notably the downlink used by direct broadcast satellites to broadcast satellite television, and for specific applications such as NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite used for both space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) communications.

Parabolic antenna

dish antennaparabolicparabolic dish antenna
The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter.
With the advent of home satellite television receivers, parabolic antennas have become a common feature of the landscapes of modern countries.

Low-noise block downconverter

LNBlow-noise block converterBlock conversion
The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter.
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.

DirecTV

DIRECTV SportsDirecTV Latin AmericaDirectTV
In some applications (DirecTV AU9-S and AT-9), ranges of the lower B-band and 2250–3000 MHz, are used.
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T.

Single cable distribution

Unicablesatellite channel router
Newer LNBFs in use by DirecTV, called SWM (Single Wire Multiswitch), are used to implement single cable distribution and use a wider frequency range of 2–2150 MHz.
Single cable distribution is a satellite TV technology that enables the delivery of broadcast programming to multiple users over a single coaxial cable, and eliminates the numerous cables required to support consumer electronics devices such as twin-tuner Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) and high end receivers.

C band (IEEE)

C bandC-bandC
These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band (4–8 GHz) from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
This use contrasts with direct-broadcast satellite, which is a completely closed system used to deliver subscription programming to small satellite dishes that are connected with proprietary receiving equipment.

F connector

F-connectorsFF type
The shift to cheaper technology from the hardline and N-connectors of the early C-band systems to the cheaper and simpler 75-ohm cable and F-connectors allowed the early satellite television receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF television tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to a lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz, where it was demodulated.
The F connector (also F-type) is a coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable.

Fixed-satellite service

FSSfixed satellite servicefixed satellite services
These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band (4–8 GHz) from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
FSSs have been used for direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television channels in North America since the late 1970s.

DVB-S

satelliteDigitaldigital satellite
In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, is based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S/DVB-S2 or ISDB-S.
Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997.

MPEG-2

MPEG2DVDH.262 / MPEG-2 Part 2 video
In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, is based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S/DVB-S2 or ISDB-S.
MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems.

Nagravision

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The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include NDS, BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Cryptoworks, DG Crypt, Beta digital, SECA Mediaguard, Logiways, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher, and VideoGuard.
Nagravision (or Nagra Kudelski or simply Nagra) is a company of the Kudelski Group that develops conditional access systems for digital cable and satellite television.

VideoGuard

encryptionNDS VideoGuard
The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include NDS, BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Cryptoworks, DG Crypt, Beta digital, SECA Mediaguard, Logiways, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher, and VideoGuard.
It is used on digital satellite television systems - some of which are operated by News Corporation, which owned about half (49%) of NDS until its sale to Cisco in 2012.

Multiswitch

If several satellite receivers are to be attached to a single dish, a so-called multiswitch will have to be used in conjunction with a special type of LNB.
A multiswitch is a device used with a dual or quattro LNB to distribute satellite TV signals to multiple (usually more than four) receivers from a single dish and LNB.

Sky Deutschland

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These are not marketed as a DBS service, but are received in approximately 18 million homes, as well as in any home using the Sky Deutschland commercial DBS system.
Sky Deutschland, branded as Sky, is a German media company that operates a direct broadcast satellite Pay TV platform in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (through Teleclub).

Freesat

Freesat Awardsfree satelliteFreesat Freetime
Most of these channels are included within the Sky EPG, and an increasing number within the Freesat EPG.
Freesat is a British free-to-air satellite television service, provided by joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc.