Satire

satiricalsatiristsatiricsatirizessatirizedsatirizesatiressatirizingsatirical novelsatirically
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.wikipedia
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Parody

parodiesspoofparodied
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant" —but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing.
A parody ; also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on (something), caricature, or joke, is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

Political satire

political satiristPoliticalpolitical humor
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, and the state of civil liberties and human rights. Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs.
Political satire is satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of advancing political arguments where such arguments are expressly forbidden.

Menippean satire

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Satirical literature can commonly be categorized as either Horatian, Juvenalian, or Menippean.
The genre of Menippean satire is a form of satire, usually in prose, which has a length and structure similar to a novel and is characterized by attacking mental attitudes rather than specific individuals or entities.

Jonathan Swift

SwiftDean SwiftSwiftian
Jonathan Swift has been established as an author who "borrowed heavily from Juvenal's techniques in [his critique] of contemporary English society" (Podzemny).
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, hence his common sobriquet, "Dean Swift".

Literature

literaryLettersliterary work
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production.

Religious satire

satirereligiousreligious satirist
Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs.
Religious satire is a form of satire targeted at religious beliefs and can take the form of texts, plays, films, and parody.

Burlesque

burlesque dancerburlesquesburlesque house
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant" —but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing.
Butler's addition to his comic poem of an ethical subtext made his caricatures into satire.

Horace

Quintus Horatius FlaccusHoratiusHoratian
Horatian satire, named for the Roman satirist Horace (65–8 BCE), playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humour. The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal, who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire.
Satires 1.6.65–92

Ribaldry

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Satire on sex may overlap with blue comedy, off-color humor and dick jokes.
Also, ribaldry may use sex as a metaphor to illustrate some non-sexual concern, in which case ribaldry borders satire.

Genre

subgenregenressubgenres
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres.

Satires (Juvenal)

JuvenalSatiresSatires of Juvenal
The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal, who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire.
The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the early 2nd century AD.

Lucian

Lucian of SamosataPseudo-LucianLukian
In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote True History, a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues/adventures written by Ctesias, Iambulus, and Homer.
undefined 125 – after 180 AD) was an Assyrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.

Black comedy

dark comedyblack humorblack humour
Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor.
Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism, often relying on topics such as death.

Gaius Lucilius

LuciliusG. Lucili
The first Roman to discuss satire critically was Quintilian, who invented the term to describe the writings of Gaius Lucilius.
180 – 103/02 BC), the earliest Roman satirist, of whose writings only fragments remain, was a Roman citizen of the equestrian class, born at Suessa Aurunca in Campania.

Alexander Pope

PopeMr. PopeM. Pope
Alexander Pope has been established as an author whose satire "heals with morals what it hurts with wit" (Green).
Pope's formal education ended at this time, and from then on he mostly educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.

Papyrus Anastasi I

Anastasi IAnastasi Papyrus
The Papyrus Anastasi I (late 2nd millennium BC) contains a satirical letter which first praises the virtues of its recipient, but then mocks the reader's meagre knowledge and achievements.
Papyrus Anastasi I (officially designated papyrus British Museum 10247 ) is an ancient Egyptian papyrus containing a satirical text used for the training of scribes during the Ramesside Period (i.e. Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties).

A True Story

True Historytrue storyA True History
In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote True History, a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues/adventures written by Ctesias, Iambulus, and Homer.
The novel is a satire of outlandish tales which had been reported in ancient sources, particularly those which presented fantastic or mythical events as if they were true.

Comedy

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The terms "comedy" and "satire" became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Islamic philosophers and writers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor.

Persius

Aulus Persius FlaccusAulus PersiusPersio
Other important satirists in ancient Latin are Gaius Lucilius and Persius.
In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic wisdom and a strong criticism for what he considered to be the stylistic abuses of his poetic contemporaries.

Cynicism (philosophy)

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Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones: wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, cynicism, the sardonic and invective.
The example of the Cynic's life (and the use of the Cynic's biting satire) would dig up and expose the pretensions which lay at the root of everyday conventions.

Grotesque body

grotesquegrotesque realismGrotesque bodily
Scatology has a long literary association with satire, as it is a classical mode of the grotesque, the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque.
Italian satirist Daniele Luttazzi explained: "satire exhibits the grotesque body, which is dominated by the primary needs (eating, drinking, defecating, urinating, sex) to celebrate the victory of life: the social and the corporeal are joyfully joint in something indivisible, universal and beneficial".

Ridiculous

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Historically, satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy, religion and other prominent realms of power.
The ridiculous can use uses both physical and conceptual inferiority and incongruity of juxtaposition to create parody and satire.

Goliard

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In the Early Middle Ages, examples of satire were the songs by Goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th-century composer Carl Orff.
The goliards were a group of clergy, generally young, in Europe who wrote satirical Latin poetry in the 12th and 13th centuries of the Middle Ages.

Mockery

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Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones: wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, cynicism, the sardonic and invective.
They emphasize that mockery may be used ironically and comedically, to identify moral stigma and signal moral superiority, but also as a form of social encouragement, allowing those who are providing social cues, to do so in a way that provides a level of social distance between the criticism and critic through use of parody and satire.

The Satire of the Trades

The Egyptian Satire of the Trades
One of the earliest examples of what we might call satire, The Satire of the Trades, is in Egyptian writing from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.
It is generally considered to be a satire, though Helck thought it reflected the true attitude of the scribal class towards manual labourers.