A report on Satire

1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a great deal of satire of the contemporary, social, and political scene.
The satirical papyrus at the British Museum
Satirical ostracon showing a cat guarding geese, c.1120 BC, Egypt.
Figured ostracon showing a cat waiting on a mouse, Egypt
Pieter Bruegel's 1568 satirical painting The Blind Leading the Blind.
'A Welch wedding' Satirical Cartoon c.1780
A Victorian satirical sketch depicting a gentleman's donkey race in 1852
Benzino Napaloni and Adenoid Hynkel in The Great Dictator (1940). Chaplin later declared that he would have not made the film if he had known about the concentration camps.
Puppet of Manchester United striker Eric Cantona from the British satirical puppet show Spitting Image
Stephen Colbert satirically impersonated an opinionated and self-righteous television commentator on his Comedy Central program in the U.S.
Political satire by Ranan Lurie

Genre of the visual, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

- Satire
1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a great deal of satire of the contemporary, social, and political scene.

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Tragic Comic Masks of Ancient Greek Theatre
represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic

Comedy

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Genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, television, radio, books, or any other entertainment medium. The term originated in ancient Greece: in Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by political satire performed by comic poets in theaters.

Genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, television, radio, books, or any other entertainment medium. The term originated in ancient Greece: in Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by political satire performed by comic poets in theaters.

Tragic Comic Masks of Ancient Greek Theatre
represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic
Roman-era mosaic depicting a scene from Menander's comedy Samia ("The Woman from Samos")
Title page of the first quarto of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream (1600)
Edward Lear, Aged 73 and a Half and His Cat Foss, Aged 16, an 1885 lithograph by Edward Lear
Charlie Chaplin as "The Tramp" (1921)
Jim Carrey mugs for the camera
Jordan Peele at the Peabody awards.

Satire and political satire use comedy to portray people or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor.

Portrait by Charles Jervas, 1710

Jonathan Swift

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Portrait by Charles Jervas, 1710
The house in which Swift was born; 1865 illustration
Jonathan Swift in 1682, by Thomas Pooley. The artist had married into the Swift family
Jonathan Swift (shown without wig) by Rupert Barber, 1745, National Portrait Gallery, London
list of deans of Saint Patrick's Cathedral, including Jonathan Swift
Bust in St Patrick's Cathedral
Epitaph in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin near his burial site
Jonathan Swift at the Deanery of St Patrick's, illus. from 1905 Temple Scott edition of Works
The title page to Swift's 1735 Works, depicting the author in the Dean's chair, receiving the thanks of Ireland. The Horatian motto reads, Exegi Monumentum Ære perennius, "I have completed a monument more lasting than brass." The 'brass' is a pun, for William Wood's halfpennies (alloyed with brass) lie scattered at his feet. Cherubim award Swift a poet's laurel.
An 1850 illustration of Swift
Swift's death mask

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, author, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet, and Anglican cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, hence his common sobriquet, "Dean Swift".

Portrait by Michael Dahl, c. 1727

Alexander Pope

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English poet, translator, and satirist of the Enlightenment era who is considered one of the most prominent English poets of the early 18th century.

English poet, translator, and satirist of the Enlightenment era who is considered one of the most prominent English poets of the early 18th century.

Portrait by Michael Dahl, c. 1727
Pope's villa at Twickenham, showing the grotto; from a watercolour produced soon after his death
Mawson Arms, Chiswick Lane, with blue plaque to Pope
Alexander Pope, painting attributed to English painter Jonathan Richardson, c. 1736, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The death of Alexander Pope from Museus, a threnody by William Mason. Diana holds the dying Pope, and John Milton, Edmund Spenser, and Geoffrey Chaucer prepare to welcome him to heaven.
Frontispiece and title page of a 1752 edition of Pope's Odyssey

Pope's formal education ended at this time, and from then on, he mostly educated himself by reading the works of classical writers such as the satirists Horace and Juvenal, the epic poets Homer and Virgil, as well as English authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Dryden.

, persiflage on the tulip mania, by Jan Brueghel the Younger (1640s)

Parody

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, persiflage on the tulip mania, by Jan Brueghel the Younger (1640s)
Satirical political cartoon that appeared in Puck magazine, October 9, 1915. Caption "I did not raise my girl to be a voter" parodies the anti-World War I song "I Didn't Raise My Boy To Be A Soldier". A chorus of disreputable men support a lone anti-suffrage woman.
Reggie Brown, a voice actor and Barack Obama impersonator

A parody, also called a spoof, a satire, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

Portrait of John Arbuthnot by Godfrey Kneller

John Arbuthnot

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Portrait of John Arbuthnot by Godfrey Kneller
Arbuthnot, from a painting by Godfrey Knoeller
John Bull in his World War I iteration. Arbuthnot's character became an enduring symbol for the United Kingdom.
Illustration from Tentamen circa indolem alimentoru published in Acta Eruditorum, 1734

John Arbuthnot FRS (baptised 29 April 1667 – 27 February 1735), often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London.

First edition of Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's Travels

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Gulliver's Travels, or 'Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.

Gulliver's Travels, or 'Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.

First edition of Gulliver's Travels
Locations visited by Gulliver, according to Arthur Ellicott Case. Case contends that the maps in the published text were drawn by someone who did not follow Swift's geographical descriptions; to correct this, he makes changes such as placing Lilliput to the east of Australia instead of the west.
Mural depicting Gulliver surrounded by citizens of Lilliput.
Gulliver exhibited to the Brobdingnag Farmer (painting by Richard Redgrave)
Gulliver discovers Laputa, the floating/flying island (illustration by J. J. Grandville)
Gulliver in discussion with Houyhnhnms (1856 illustration by J.J. Grandville).
The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver by James Gillray (1803), (satirising Napoleon Bonaparte and George III). Metropolitan Museum of Art
Gulliver and a giant, a painting by Tadeusz Pruszkowski (National Museum in Warsaw).
Comic book cover by Lilian Chesney

By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships' is a 1726 prose satire by the Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, satirising both human nature and the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre.

List of satirists and satires

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This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for involvement in satire – humorous social criticism.

A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)

Genre

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Any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time.

Any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time.

A genre painting (Peasant Dance, c. 1568, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder)

Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres.

Title page of a 1619 Latin translation of Lucian's complete works

Lucian

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Title page of a 1619 Latin translation of Lucian's complete works
Title page of a 1619 Latin translation of Lucian's complete works
Speculative portrayal of Lucian taken from a seventeenth-century engraving by William Faithorne
Bust of Epicurus, an Athenian philosopher whom Lucian greatly admired
Illustration from 1894 by William Strang depicting a battle scene from Book One of Lucian's novel A True Story
Hermes, the messenger of the gods, is a major recurring character throughout many of Lucian's dialogues.
The Calumny of Apelles by Sandro Botticelli, based on a description of a painting by the Greek painter Apelles of Kos found in Lucian's ekphrasis On Calumny
Monument commemorating Lucian of Samosata from Nordkirchen, Germany

Lucian of Samosata (Ancient Greek: Λουκιανός ό Σαμοσατεύς, c. undefined 125 – after 180) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist, rhetorician and pamphleteer who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.

Illustrated Chips (1896). Harmsworth titles would enjoy a monopoly of comics in the UK until the emergence of DC Thomson comics in the 1930s.

Comic strip

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Sequence of drawings, often cartoons, arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions.

Sequence of drawings, often cartoons, arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions.

Illustrated Chips (1896). Harmsworth titles would enjoy a monopoly of comics in the UK until the emergence of DC Thomson comics in the 1930s.
Jimmy Hatlo's They'll Do It Every Time was often drawn in the two-panel format as seen in this 1943 example.
Gene Ahern's The Squirrel Cage (January 3, 1937), an example of a topper strip which is better remembered than the strip it accompanied, Ahern's Room and Board.
Russell Patterson and Carolyn Wells' New Adventures of Flossy Frills (January 26, 1941), an example of comic strips on Sunday magazines.

Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced.