Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fatssaturated fatty acidsunsaturated12%dietary recommendationslow in saturated fatnational dietary recommendationssaturate
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.wikipedia
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Cream

heavy creamdouble creamwhipped cream
Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.
It can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets, and contains high levels of saturated fat.

Unsaturated fat

unsaturatedunsaturated fatty acidsunsaturated fatty acid
Various fats contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat.
Thus, a saturated fat has no double bonds, has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons, and therefore is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms.

Coconut oil

coconutoilcopra oil
Certain vegetable products have high saturated fat content, such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in "tropical" oils (e.g., palm kernel, coconut) and dairy products.
Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.

Meat

meatsmeat consumptionlean meat
Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.
For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef, pork and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery.

Fat

greasetotal fatdietary fat
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain.

Lauric acid

lauriclauratedodecanoic acid
Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in "tropical" oils (e.g., palm kernel, coconut) and dairy products.
Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus having many properties of medium-chain fatty acids, is a bright white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap.

Palm kernel oil

Palm kernelpalm kernelspalm kernel acid
Certain vegetable products have high saturated fat content, such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in "tropical" oils (e.g., palm kernel, coconut) and dairy products.
Palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats; these oils give the name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid that they contain.

Palmitic acid

palmitatepalmitichexadecanoic acid
The saturated fat in meat, eggs, cacao, and nuts is primarily the triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids.
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.

Palm oil

palmoilpalm-oil
The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49% saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated fats, respectively.

Milk

cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.
Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Many review articles also recommend a diet low in saturated fat and argue it will lower risks of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or death.
The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.

Cheese

cheesesrindCheese making
Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.
In general, cheese is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of calcium, protein, phosphorus, sodium and saturated fat.

Monounsaturated fat

monounsaturatedmonounsaturated fatty acidsmonounsaturated fatty acid
While many studies have found that including polyunsaturated fats in the diet in place of saturated fats produces more beneficial CVD outcomes, the effects of substituting monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates are unclear.
Fatty acid viscosity (thickness) and melting temperature increases with decreasing number of double bonds; therefore, monounsaturated fatty acids have a higher melting point than polyunsaturated fatty acids (more double bonds) and a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids (no double bonds).

Polyunsaturated fat

polyunsaturatedpolyunsaturated fatty acidspolyunsaturated fats
While many studies have found that including polyunsaturated fats in the diet in place of saturated fats produces more beneficial CVD outcomes, the effects of substituting monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates are unclear.
Saturated fats have hydrocarbon chains which can be most readily aligned.

Egg as food

eggseggchicken egg
The saturated fat in meat, eggs, cacao, and nuts is primarily the triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids.
People on a low-cholesterol diet may need to reduce egg consumption; however, only 27 percent of the fat in egg is saturated fat (palmitic, stearic, and myristic acids).

Butter

Bennecultured buttermelted butter
Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fat products such as cream, cheese, butter, other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.
Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat.

Triglyceride

triglyceridestriacylglyceroltriacylglycerols
There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in CVD, although it seems, in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile, the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect.
Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied.

Breast milk

human milkhuman breast milkbreastmilk

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
In a study of myocardial infarction in 52 countries, the ApoB/ApoA1 (related to LDL and HDL, respectively) ratio was the strongest predictor of CVD among all risk factors.
There is varying evidence about the importance of saturated fat in the development of myocardial infarctions.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in CVD, although it seems, in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile, the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect.

Trans fat

trans fatstrans-fattrans fatty acids
At first, the argument was a financial one due to lower costs; advocates also said that the unsaturated trans fats of margarine were healthier than the saturated fats of butter.

Healthy diet

healthy eatingbalanced diethealthy food
As of 2017, decreasing total fat is no longer recommended, but instead, the recommendation to lower risk of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats.

Junk food

unhealthy foodjunkJunkfood
Some high-protein foods, like meat prepared with saturated fat, may be considered junk food.

Ancel Keys

Ancel KeyesDr. Ancel Keys
Modern dietary recommendations by health organizations, systematic reviews, and national health agencies corroborate this.

D. Mark Hegsted

David Mark Hegsted
His work included studies that showed that consumption of saturated fats led to increases in cholesterol, leading to the development of dietary guidelines intended to help Americans achieve better health through improved food choices.